ISSN 1070-4272, Russian Journal of Applied Chemistry, 2015, Vol. 88, No. 2, pp. 239−243. © Pleiades Publishing, Ltd., 2015.
Original Russian Text © E.A. Bannova, N.K. Kitaeva, 2015, published in Zhurnal Prikladnoi Khimii, 2015, Vol. 88, No. 2, pp. 234−239.
INORGANIC SYNTHESIS AND INDUSTRIAL
Development of a Carbon Material Based on Carbonized Peat
E. A. Bannova and N. K. Kitaeva
Obninsk Center for Science and Technology, ul. Gor’kogo 4, Obninsk, Kaluga oblast, 249033 Russia
Received October 13, 2014
Abstract—Carbonization of peat under the action of microwave radiation was used to produce a microporous
carbon material. The effect of the carbonization process parameters on the physicochemical, structural, and ad-
sorption properties of the carbon material was examined. It was shown that the carbonization results in that the
content of charged surface areas decreases due to the destruction of functional organic compounds, thee appears
porosity, and the adsorption properties of the carbon material are improved.
In recent years, the interest of numerous researchers
has been focused on the development of most efﬁ cient
and ecologically safe methods for synthesis of carbon
sorbents. Vegetable and natural organic raw materials
activated and carbonized by thermal treatment are
widely used as precursors. The nature of a starting raw
material and the carbonization and activation methods
predetermine the physicochemical, structural, and
adsorption properties of the resulting carbon materials.
In the world, high-quality carbon materials are
mostly obtained from nut shells. In Russia, the main raw
material for obtaining activated carbons is hard leaf wood,
predominantly of birch . Activated carbons and other
carbon materials are produced from natural and vegetable
raw materials and products of their processing (peat, husk,
sawdust, bark, etc.), hard and brown coal [2–10].
With various carbonization and activation methods
used, it is possible to purposefully control the content of
functional groups in the starting raw material and obtain
carbon materials with prescribed properties . The po-
rous structure of carbonizates is formed due to the simul-
taneously occurring processes of partial destruction of the
material and as a consequence of the decrease in its volume
and pore formation as a result of gas-and-vapor release .
Previously, a method for peat carbonization under the
action of electromagnetic microwave radiation (EMR)
has been developed .
The goal of our study was to examine the effect of
EMR on the physicochemical, structural, and absorption
properties of carbonized peat.
We used in the study the following materials: high-
bog sphagnum peat, grain size 1–3 mm, preliminarily
dried to a moisture content of 15–20% (TsEI Press-torf
ZAO); benzene and hexane (both of special-purity grade);
iodine (standard titer); sodium thiosulfate (pure grade);
Methylene Blue and Metanil Yellow (both of analytically
Peat was carbonized in a stationary microwave
installation by the following procedure . A close
crucible with a precisely weighed portion of peat (~2.5 g)
was placed in the microwave installation on a pedestal
of heat-resistant glass. The EMR power was set and
maintained during a ﬁ xed time. The closed crucible with
carbonized peat was cooled to room temperature and
stored in a desiccator. The carbonization was performed
at an EMR power of 620 W and the carbonization duration
was 60 min, with the exception of experiments in which
the dependence of the properties of carbonized peat on the
EMR power and carbonization duration was examined.
The efﬁ ciency of the EMR treatment was evaluated by
the loss of mass by a sample, determined gravimetrically
as the ratio of the difference in mass between the starting