DEVELOPMENT AND INTRODUCTION
OF ENERGY SAVING MATERIALS FOR STEEL POURING
S. K. Vil’danov,
A. V. Likhodievskii,
and A. N. Pyrikov
Translated from Novye Ogneupory,No.8,pp.3–6,August 2011.
Original article submitted March 15, 2011.
A new method is considered for using heat insulation material offered by the OOO Ogneupor Trade Group
company during steel pouring into a mold. The technical result of using the new method consists of a reduc
tion in surface defects and those within the macrostructure of an ingot, abandoning use of an exothermic mix
ture, and a simultaneous reduction of heat insulation material consumption.
Keywords: slag-forming mix, heat insulation materials, ingot, mold, thick layer, metal, steel pouring.
The amount of steel poured into molds has been reduced
considerably. Nonetheless, in some metallurgical enterprises
and within the engineering complex, the method of pouring
steel into a mold remains the basic one.
Currently with bottom pouring of various steel grades,
including alloy steels, various methods are used for action on
molten metal in order to achieve some required surface qual-
ity for the ingot obtained and its microstructure. In particular,
so-called readily-melting slag-forming mixes are used,
which between the area of ingot solidification and the mold
internal surface form a thixotropic layer reducing interphase
tension. Heat insulation material is used in order to overcome
shrinkage defects within the top of an ingot, as a result of
whose action there is effective retention of physical heat of
the melt for quite a long period [1, pp. 284 – 290]. Some
times heat insulation material is replaced by exothermic
mixes, compensating for heat loss .
There is a well-known method for warming the head part
of a steel ingot with a heat insulating cover, not touching liq
uid metal, and a simultaneous supply of an exothermic mix
to the steel surface . The disadvantages of the method are
the labor content, caused by introduction of two additional
operations, and ineffective heat insulation. There is also a
method  used during steel pouring employing heat insula
tion material containing 88 – 92 wt.% thermal power station
ash and 8 – 12% of fuel shale. The drawback of this method
is organization of three operations for material supply, its
quite high consumption (3.6 kg/ton), increased gas content of
an area of the melt, low heat insulation capacity, and also the
possibility of impregnating the metal with hydrogen from
fuel shale volatiles.
It should be noted that supply of heat insulation material
in the period of filling a mold, for example suspension of a
container with materials within a mold, makes the process of
slag formation difficult in its bottom part. Therefore an ingot
surface, corresponding to this part of a mold, contains a con-
siderable amount of surface defects. As a mold is filled with
liquid metal the heat insulation material starts to float, and
this gives rise to a requirement for using an exothermic mix.
Its action develops during some quite considerable time
(3 – 5 min), i.e., when the metal is almost filling a mold, and
the heat insulation material is warmed to red heat and loses
its heat insulation properties. It is apparent that with this
method there is ineffective use of the exothermic mix itself.
Colleagues of OOO Ogneupor Trade Group have devel
oped a method  for use of heat insulation and slag forming
materials during steel pouring into a mold. The technical re
sults of its application consist of a marked increase in slag
forming mix melting rate, and as a consequence of this a re
duction in surface defects and defects of the macrostructure
of an ingot formed without application of an exothermic mix,
but a simultaneous reduction in heat insulation material. The
heat insulation material used is Isotherm-1600. The slag
forming mix is supplied in a polyethylene package to the bot
tom of a mold before entry of liquid metal. The operation of
adding heat insulation material is accomplished in parts. The
first small part is during 3 – 10 sec after entry of metal into a
mold to the outer solid surface with a polyethylene shell. The
second, larger part, is supplied to a layer of liquid slag or to
the residual layer of heat insulation material remaining on
the molten slag surface after its ascent into the top of a mold.
Refractories and Industrial Ceramics Vol. 52, No. 4, November, 2011
1083-4877/11/05204-0237 © 2011 Springer Science+Business Media, Inc.
OOO Ogneupor Trade Group, Moscow, Russia.