Russian Journal of Applied Chemistry, 2013, Vol. 86, No. 11, pp. 1682−1690.
Pleiades Publishing, Ltd., 2013.
Original English Text © M.N. Rumyantseva, L.A. Logvin, A.V. Smirnov, V.V. Krivetskii, I.I. Ivanova, A.M. Gas’kov, 2013, published in Zhurnal Prikladnoi
Khimii, 2013, Vol. 86, No. 11, pp. 1730−1739.
AND SEPARATION PROCESSES
Detection of Organophosphorus Compounds
with Semiconductor Gas Sensors
Using Adsorption Preconcentration
M. N. Rumyantseva
, L. A. Logvin
, A. V. Smirnov
V. V. Krivetskii
, I. I. Ivanova
, and A. M. Gas’kov
Lomonosov Moscow State University, Moscow, Russia
Topchiev Institute of Petrochemical Synthesis, Russian Academy of Sciences,
e-mail: firstname.lastname@example.org, email@example.com
Received November 27, 2013
Abstract—Effective concentrators for organophosphorus compounds, highly sensitive semiconductor sensors,
and a prototype of a detector for speciﬁ c determination of low concentrations of organophosphorus compounds in
air were developed. It is preferable to use as concentrating sorbents silicates with low density of surface hydroxy
groups, ensuring high degree of recovery of the target compound by thermal desorption without its decomposition.
modiﬁ ed with RuO
is the most sensitive sensor material.
Enormous stocks of nerve organophosphorus war-
fare agents (OPWAs), primarily of sarin, which are ex-
tremely toxic and highly resistant to hydrolysis, pose
serious hazard to the population. Under normal condi-
tions, OPWAs are liquids. Slow hydrolysis of OPWAs
in neutral medium leads to long-term contamination of
soil and water bodies. The poisoning effect of OPWAs is
associated with inhibition of acetylcholine esterase, an
enzyme catalyzing the hydrolysis of acetylcholine neu-
romediator, which leads to blocking of nerve impulse
transmission . The existing methods for determining
low concentrations of OPWAs in air with high sensi-
tivity and selectivity involve, as a rule, analysis in a
laboratory. This analysis requires skilled personnel and
expensive stationary equipment and is time-consuming.
Therefore, such methods cannot be used in portable de-
The development of gas analyzers allowing automat-
ic detection of dangerous chemicals at concentrations on
the level of 0.01–0.1 mg m
under ﬁ eld conditions is
a topical problem. Direct use of chemical sensors for
OPWA detection on the level of maximum permissible
concentrations (MPCs) is impossible because of their
insufﬁ cient selectivity and sensitivity. The analysis sen-
sitivity can be enhanced by combining semiconductor
gas sensors with a preconcentration system. Such an ap-
proach allows the content of the target compound in a
ﬂ ow to be considerably increased owing to preconcen-
tration on a sorbent, followed by the sample recovery
by thermal desorption. The development of gas analyz-
ers with preconcentration requires the development of
novel materials for sensors and concentrators, tuned for
selective recovery, preconcentration, and detection of
OPWAs in air.
The goal of this study is the development of materials
for chemical sensors and effective adsorption concen-
trators for the speciﬁ c determination of low concentra-
tions of organophopshorus compounds in air. The study
consists of three main sections: development of effective
OPWA concentrators, of highly sensitive semiconductor
sensors, and of a detector prototype for OPWA determi-
nation in air.