Novel accelerator applications favor free-surface liquid–metal flows, in which the liquid acts both as a target producing secondary particles but also to remove efficiently the heat deposited. A crucial aspect for the operation is the continuous monitoring of both shape and position of the liquid’s surface. This demands, in a nuclear environment, a non-intrusive measurement technique with high temporal and spatial resolution. In this context, the double-layer projection (DLP) technique based on geometric optics has been developed, allowing one to detect either point-wise or area-wise the shape and position of the nearly totally reflecting liquid–metal surface. The DLP technique employs a laser beam projected through a coplanar glass plate to the surface from which it is reflected to the plate again. Beam locations captured by means of a camera permit the position and shape of the surface to be reconstructed. The parameters affecting the resolution and performance of the DLP technique are discussed. Additionally, validation studies using static and moving objects of pre-defined shape are conducted, exhibiting spatial and temporal resolutions of 300 μm and 100 Hz, respectively. Finally, the DLP system is applied to perform measurements of a circular hydraulic jump (CHJ) in a liquid metal. The DLP system has proved the capability to measure the jump both qualitatively and quantitatively. Additionally, the experiments identified, at high Reynolds numbers, the existence of a two-step jump. The analysis of spectral data of the DLP surface measurements shows clearly that, at the outer radius, gravity waves occur. Also, contributions from the pump oscillations were found, demonstrating the high performance of the DLP system.
Experiments in Fluids – Springer Journals
Published: Oct 15, 2011
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