Detection and molecular characterization of Cryptosporidium species and Giardia assemblages in two watersheds in the metropolitan region of São Paulo, Brazil

Detection and molecular characterization of Cryptosporidium species and Giardia assemblages in... Cryptosporidium and Giardia are associated with cases of water and foodborne outbreaks in the world. This study included 50 samples of surface raw water collected from two watersheds in the state of São Paulo, Brazil. The isolation of (oo)cysts was performed in accordance with the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency’s methods 1623 and genotypic characterization and quantification were carried out by Nested PCR and qPCR assays based on 18S rRNA and gdh genes, respectively. U.S. EPA 1623 method showed the presence of (oo)cysts in 40% ( x ¯ $$ \overline{\mathrm{x}} $$  = 0.10 oocysts/L) and 100% ( x ¯ $$ \overline{\mathrm{x}} $$  = 7.6 cysts/L) of samples from São Lourenço River, respectively, and 24% ( x ¯ $$ \overline{\mathrm{x}} $$  = 0.8 oocysts/L) and 60% ( x ¯ $$ \overline{\mathrm{x}} $$  = 1.64 cysts/L) of Guarapiranga Reservoir, respectively. The qPCR assay detected C. hominis/parvum in 52% (0.06 to 1.85 oocysts/L) of São Lourenço River and 64% (0.09 to 1.4 oocysts/L) of Guarapiranga Reservoir samples. Presence/absence test for Giardia intestinalis was positive in 92% of São Lourenço River and 8% of Guarapiranga Reservoir samples. The assemblage A was detected in 16% (0.58 to 2.67 cysts/L) in São Lourenço River and no positive samples were obtained for assemblage B in both water bodies. The characterization of anthroponotic species C. parvum/hominis, G. intestinalis, and assemblage A was valuable in the investigation of possible sources of contamination in the watersheds studied confirming the need of expanding environmental monitoring measures for protection of these water sources in our country. http://www.deepdyve.com/assets/images/DeepDyve-Logo-lg.png Environmental Science and Pollution Research Springer Journals

Detection and molecular characterization of Cryptosporidium species and Giardia assemblages in two watersheds in the metropolitan region of São Paulo, Brazil

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Publisher
Springer Berlin Heidelberg
Copyright
Copyright © 2018 by Springer-Verlag GmbH Germany, part of Springer Nature
Subject
Environment; Environment, general; Environmental Chemistry; Ecotoxicology; Environmental Health; Atmospheric Protection/Air Quality Control/Air Pollution; Waste Water Technology / Water Pollution Control / Water Management / Aquatic Pollution
ISSN
0944-1344
eISSN
1614-7499
D.O.I.
10.1007/s11356-018-1620-3
Publisher site
See Article on Publisher Site

Abstract

Cryptosporidium and Giardia are associated with cases of water and foodborne outbreaks in the world. This study included 50 samples of surface raw water collected from two watersheds in the state of São Paulo, Brazil. The isolation of (oo)cysts was performed in accordance with the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency’s methods 1623 and genotypic characterization and quantification were carried out by Nested PCR and qPCR assays based on 18S rRNA and gdh genes, respectively. U.S. EPA 1623 method showed the presence of (oo)cysts in 40% ( x ¯ $$ \overline{\mathrm{x}} $$  = 0.10 oocysts/L) and 100% ( x ¯ $$ \overline{\mathrm{x}} $$  = 7.6 cysts/L) of samples from São Lourenço River, respectively, and 24% ( x ¯ $$ \overline{\mathrm{x}} $$  = 0.8 oocysts/L) and 60% ( x ¯ $$ \overline{\mathrm{x}} $$  = 1.64 cysts/L) of Guarapiranga Reservoir, respectively. The qPCR assay detected C. hominis/parvum in 52% (0.06 to 1.85 oocysts/L) of São Lourenço River and 64% (0.09 to 1.4 oocysts/L) of Guarapiranga Reservoir samples. Presence/absence test for Giardia intestinalis was positive in 92% of São Lourenço River and 8% of Guarapiranga Reservoir samples. The assemblage A was detected in 16% (0.58 to 2.67 cysts/L) in São Lourenço River and no positive samples were obtained for assemblage B in both water bodies. The characterization of anthroponotic species C. parvum/hominis, G. intestinalis, and assemblage A was valuable in the investigation of possible sources of contamination in the watersheds studied confirming the need of expanding environmental monitoring measures for protection of these water sources in our country.

Journal

Environmental Science and Pollution ResearchSpringer Journals

Published: Mar 20, 2018

References

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