Design and rationale of the non-interventional, edoxaban treatment in routiNe clinical prActice in patients with venous ThromboEmbolism in Europe (ETNA-VTE-Europe) study

Design and rationale of the non-interventional, edoxaban treatment in routiNe clinical prActice... Background: Venous thromboembolism (VTE, including deep vein thrombosis [DVT] and pulmonary embolism [PE]) has an annual incidence rate of 104–183 per 100,000 person-years. After a VTE episode, the two-year recurrence rate is about 17%. Consequently, effective and safe anticoagulation is paramount. Edoxaban is a direct oral anticoagulant (DOAC) approved VTE treatment. Current safety and efficacy data are derived from clinical trials, and information about treatment durations beyond 12 months are not available. Methods: ETNA-VTE-Europe is an 18-month prospective, single-arm, non-interventional, multinational post-authorisation safety study. Approximately 310 sites across eight European countries (Austria, Belgium, Germany, Ireland, Italy, the Netherlands, Switzerland and the United Kingdom) will participate in the study, with the intention to represent the regional distributions of centres, healthcare settings and specialties. An estimated cohort of 2700 patients will be recruited, the only enrolment criteria being acute symptomatic VTE, no participation in an interventional study, and treating physician decision to prescribe edoxaban independently from the registry. Data from patient medical records and/or telephone interviews will be collected at baseline, 1, 3, 6, 12 and 18 months. The primary objective is to evaluate the18-monthrateofsymptomatic VTErecurrenceinpatientswithVTE treatedwithedoxabanoutside aclinicaltrial.The co-primary objective is to evaluate the real-world rates of bleeding and adverse drug reactions. Secondary outcomes include rates of other patient-relevant safety events, adherence to and discontinuation of edoxaban. Furthermore, 12- month ETNA-VTE-Europe data will be considered in the context of those for patients receiving different anticoagulants in the PREFER in VTE registry and Hokusai-VTE clinical trial. (Continued on next page) * Correspondence: alexander.cohen@kcl.ac.uk Guy’s and St Thomas’ NHS Foundation Trust, King’s College London, London, UK Full list of author information is available at the end of the article © The Author(s). 2018, corrected publication May/2018. Open Access This article is distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License (http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0/), which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided you give appropriate credit to the original author(s) and the source, provide a link to the Creative Commons license, and indicate if changes were made. The Creative Commons Public Domain Dedication waiver (http://creativecommons.org/publicdomain/zero/1.0/) applies to the data made available in this article, unless otherwise stated. Cohen et al. Thrombosis Journal (2018) 16:9 Page 2 of 13 (Continued from previous page) Conclusions: ETNA-VTE-Europe will allow the safety and effectivenessofedoxabantobeevaluatedoveranextended period in acute symptomatic VTE patients encountered in routine clinical practice. Findings will be informative for European practitioners prescribing edoxaban as part of real-world VTE treatment/prevention. Trial registration: ClinicalTrials.gov Identifier: NCT02943993. Keywords: Venous thromboembolism (VTE), Edoxaban, Direct oral anticoagulant (DOAC/NOAC), Anticoagulation, Registry Background clinical practice. This study forms part of a global Venous thromboembolism (VTE), which encompasses program and safety data will eventually be pooled with both deep-vein thrombosis (DVT) and pulmonary ETNA-AF-Europe data and with those from similar embolism (PE), has an annual incidence rate of approxi- Japanese, Thai, Chinese, Taiwanese and Korean regional mately 104–183 per 100,000 person-years in individuals registries to assess the safety outcomes associated with of European descent [1]. VTE is the third most common edoxaban on a worldwide scale. cardiovascular disease. The case-fatality rate is higher after PE than after DVT [2, 3]. Nevertheless, both events Methods increase the probability of subsequent recurrent VTE, ETNA-VTE-Europe is a single-arm, multinational, pro- which affects approximately 17% of patients at 2 years, spective, non-interventional PASS, which will be con- indicating that VTE is a chronic disease [4]. Conse- ducted across approximately 310 sites in 8 European quently, effective anticoagulation to treat first-time VTE countries (Austria, Belgium, Germany, Ireland, Italy, the and prevent its recurrence is paramount. Netherlands, Switzerland and the United Kingdom). The Edoxaban is a direct oral anticoagulant (DOAC), registry will enrol approximately 2700 patients with which exerts its effects through inhibition of factor Xa. acute VTE treated with edoxaban, who will be followed Based on results from the ENGAGE AF-TIMI 48 and over the 18 months subsequent to the index VTE. Hokusai-VTE trials [5, 6], it was approved by the Euro- Approval from the responsible ethics committees and in- pean Medicines Agency (EMA) regulatory for two main stitutional review boards will be obtained prior to proto- indications: the prevention of stroke/systemic embolism col implementation. Informed consent will be obtained in patients with non-valvular atrial fibrillation (NVAF) from all patients prior to enrolment and compliance with one or more risk factor, and the treatment/second- with the Declaration of Helsinki will be ensured ary prevention of acute VTE (DVT and/or PE) in adults throughout the study. [7]. However, current evidence for the safety and efficacy of edoxaban is derived from the patient populations en- Objectives and outcome measures rolled in clinical trials. Furthermore, though current The primary objective of ETNA-VTE-Europe is to guidelines recommend that anticoagulation following quantify the long-term rate of VTE recurrence in a large, VTE should be continued for at least 3 months and up real-world population of acute symptomatic VTE pa- to an indefinite duration, depending upon the risk of tients prescribed edoxaban as part of their initial treat- recurrence [8], no data currently exist for treatment with ment regimen. Accordingly, the primary outcome edoxaban beyond 12 months. measure will be the proportion of such patients who As part of an ongoing European risk-management experience recurrent symptomatic VTE on one or more plan, several post-authorisation safety studies (PASS) occasions within the 18 months following their index have been designed to assess the real-world outcomes of VTE, regardless of the length of edoxaban exposure. edoxaban-treated patients in the EMA-approved indica- The co-primary objective is to collect and evaluate tions [9]. Here we describe the design and rationale for real-world safety data regarding adverse drug reactions the “Edoxaban Treatment in routine cliNical prActice (ADRs) in patients treated with edoxaban across the for patients with acute Venous ThromboEmbolism in currently approved indications. Therefore, ETNA-VTE- Europe” (ETNA-VTE-Europe) PASS, the protocol for Europe data will be combined with 18-month safety data which has been reviewed and approved by the EMA’s from the Edoxaban Treatment in routine cliNical PrAc- Pharmacovigilance Risk Assessment Committee (PRAC), tice for patients with non-valvular Atrial Fibrillation in in accordance with new regulatory requirements. The Europe (ETNA-AF-Europe) study, a parallel European aim of this PASS is to gain further insight into the safety PASS evaluating the safety and effectiveness of edoxaban and effectiveness of treatment and secondary prevention in real-world treatment of atrial fibrillation (AF) [10]. of VTE with edoxaban up to 18 months in routine The outcome measure will be the proportion of patients Cohen et al. Thrombosis Journal (2018) 16:9 Page 3 of 13 who experience death (all-cause, cardiovascular, and VTE- taking place in two waves; the first extends from the last related), bleeding events (major, clinically relevant non- quarter of 2016 to the second quarter of 2018 major [CRNM], and minor bleeding; defined according to (Switzerland and Germany) and the second from the International Society on Thrombosis and Haemostasis first quarter of 2017 to the last quarter of 2018 (all other [ISTH] criteria [11]), hepatic events, and/or other ADRs countries). In each country, the recruitment period will before the 18 month time-point in the two studies. last 2 years, with the aim of obtaining a representative Secondary objectives are as follows: to evaluate the study population of approximately 2700 VTE patients effects of persistent edoxaban use and permanent dis- from a variety of healthcare settings. continuation on the rate of recurrent symptomatic VTE; To be included in the study, patients must have been to assess the rates of patient-relevant safety outcomes, diagnosed with initial or recurrent acute VTE (distal or including bleeding, ischaemic/haemorrhagic stroke, sys- proximal DVT and/or PE) that occurred no more than 2 temic embolic events (SEE), post-thrombotic syndrome weeks prior to enrolment. In addition, the treating phys- (PTS), death, and hospitalisation due to cardiovascular ician must have decided to prescribe the patient edoxa- causes; and to characterise the extent of adherence to ban, with indications that are in line with the edoxaban edoxaban, reasons for and rate of discontinuation. To Summary of Product Characteristics (SmPC). All treat- evaluate the effectiveness and safety of edoxaban relative ment decisions are independent of the registry and to other anticoagulants, primary and secondary ETNA- completely at the discretion of the treating physician VTE outcome data will be appraised in the context of and/or patient, with no reimbursement for any drugs or those from the PREFER in VTE real-world registry and therapy received during the study. As such, any con- Hokusai-VTE clinical trial [12, 13]. The influence of comitant treatment is allowed and changes to medica- study setting will also be explored by considering real- tion are unrestricted. The only exclusion criteria are lack world ETNA-VTE data in the context of edoxaban data of written informed consent and participation in a from the Hokusai-VTE clinical trial [12]. simultaneous interventional study. Site selection Documentation and assessment In order to represent the regional distributions of Data for this study will be sourced from medical records centres, healthcare settings, specialties, and approaches and, when in line with routine clinical practice, from to VTE treatment, a sequential site selection process is telephone calls between the patient and treating phys- underway. This involves identification of potential sites, ician. As a non-interventional study, no patient contact, acquisition of relevant institutional details via a feasibil- examinations, laboratory tests or procedures are com- ity questionnaire, assessment of suitability, and invitation pulsory, and will only be carried out at the discretion of to participate. To be considered eligible, sites are re- the treating physician, as and when deemed appropriate quired to have access to acute VTE patients expected to and without registry influence. A standardised electronic receive edoxaban treatment, the ability to access the case report form (eCRF) will be completed by the site Electronic Data Capture (EDC) system and record data shortly after enrolment and again after every interaction in English, and adequate time and staff to perform all with a patient over the subsequent 18 months. The study-related documentation activities. They must also eCRFs will be uploaded to the secure, internet-based agree to complete a screening log with the aim of maxi- Medidata Rave EDC system. mising the potential for consecutive enrolment, and to Given that the edoxaban SmPC recommends 5 days of perform follow-ups according to routine clinical practice. parenteral anticoagulation following VTE before starting There is an upper limit of 100 patients per site. edoxaban treatment [7], baseline is defined as the first day of heparin/fondaparinux administration after the Patient recruitment index acute VTE event. The first data entry, which will The original version of the ETNA-VTE-Europe protocol be completed following enrolment and within 2 weeks was approved by the Swiss Agency for Therapeutic of the index VTE, will include details of baseline patient Products (Swissmedic) and the central Ethics Committee characteristics, comorbidities, VTE-related parameters, in Switzerland in February 2015. Accordingly, Swiss sites past and current therapy, and other relevant assessments began enrolling patients at this time. However, protocol made according to site protocol (Table 1). Memory aids revision was necessary due to a change in EMA legisla- will be provided to all patients at enrolment, with space tion and a revised PRAC process in July 2015. Upon the to record edoxaban-related treatment changes, use of approval of the new protocol by the EMA’sPRAC in concomitant medication, adverse events, hospitalisation, September 2016, Swiss regulatory bodies were informed physician contact, and productivity loss. This aid can be of the changes and new approval sought. Patient recruit- used to assist with recall during subsequent visits/tele- ment according to the revised protocol is now underway, phone calls, but are voluntary and will not be formally Cohen et al. Thrombosis Journal (2018) 16:9 Page 4 of 13 Table 1 Time points for data assessment Baseline* 1 month 3 months 6 months 12 months 18 months Country-specific LPO (1) Eligibility criteria X (2) Baseline characteristics X (3) § § § § § VTE-related parameters XX X X X X (4) Edoxaban therapy XX X X X X Concomitant anticoagulants X X X X X X Interventions X X X X X X (5) Adherence to VTE therapy XX X X X X (6) † Recurrent VTE XX X X X X (7) Other clinical events XX X X X X (8) Hospitalisation for cardiovascular disease XX X X X (9) PTS XX X X (10) Vital signs XX X X X X (9) Laboratory parameters XX X X X X (11) ADRs XX X X X X (1) Legend: VTE, venous thromboembolism; PTS, post-thrombotic syndrome; ADR, adverse drug reaction; LPO, last patient out. Confirmed first or recurrent VTE within the 2 weeks preceding enrolment; treated with edoxaban according to Summary of Product Characteristics; written informed consent; no simultaneous (2) (3) interventional study participation. Age and gender, alcohol consumption, smoking status, frailty, comorbidities, and medical history. Details of past and current VTE risk factors, symptoms, diagnosis, interventions, treatment, and related clinical events (stroke, bleeding events, systemic embolism, non-valvular atrial (4) fibrillation, and malignancies). History and current status, including dose, prescription intervals, and any changes to edoxaban treatment since last data point (5) (6) (including permanent discontinuation, in which case date, reason and subsequent therapy must be provided). Physician judgment only. Timing, diagnosis (7) (8) and interventions. I.e. death, stroke, bleeding events, systemic embolism, non-valvular atrial fibrillation, and malignancies. Admittance and discharge dates, (9) (10) (11) clinical event, and use of the emergency room and/or intensive care unit. If assessed. Including blood pressure, heart rate, height and weight. As per the Guideline on Good Pharmacovigilance Practices (GVP) Module VI (Management and reporting of adverse reactions to medicinal products; EMA/873138/2011 Rev. 1) [16]; coding according to the standardised Medical Dictionary for Regulatory Activities (MedDRA).*Defined as the first day of heparin administration after the † § index acute VTE event. Since 18-month time point. Changes in symptoms/diagnosis and any other VTE-relevant information assessed. In each country, all patients will be followed provided in Table 2. Permanent edoxaban discontinuation until the last patient for that particular country has com- is defined as cessation of edoxaban treatment within the pleted the 18-month documentation period, in line with follow-up period. EMA requirements. At this point, a last-patient-out (LPO) questionnaire, requesting a minimum of vital sta- Quality control tus, will be issued for each patient enrolled in the re- ETNA-VTE-Europe will be conducted in accordance spective country. with the Guidelines for Good Pharmacoepidemiology Upon completion of the ETNA-VTE-Europe registry, Practice (GPP) and the EMA Guideline on Good Phar- data will be extracted for the following time points: macovigilance Practices (GVP) Module VIII (manage- baseline, 1, 3, 6, 12 and 18 months. Details of the param- ment and reporting of adverse reactions to medicinal eters to be evaluated at each time point are outlined in products; EMA/813938/2011 rev 1) [16, 17]. Automated Table 1. The current status, change/events since baseline checks for plausibility and integrity will be carried out at and change/events since the previous time point will be data entry to permit correction or confirmation by the assessed for each parameter, as appropriate. In addition, site. Furthermore, approximately 30% of sites will be recurrence of symptomatic VTE and death since the 18- randomly selected to undergo on-site monitoring, during month time point will be retrospectively documented at which random source data verification will be per- the time of LPO per country. formed. In particular, monitoring activities will closely assess the completeness and correctness of safety data. Definitions Patients with missing observations for a particular time All variables in the ETNA-VTE-Europe study are defined point and/or parameter will be omitted from the corre- as similarly as possible to those in the PREFER in VTE sponding analyses. and Hokusai-VTE studies to permit close comparison of results [6, 13–15]. However, the feasibility of this is some- Sample size calculations what limited by the non-interventional setting. A com- Assuming an overall 18-month symptomatic VTE recur- parison of the most important variable definitions is rence rate [12, 13] of 8.0% in patients who receive Cohen et al. Thrombosis Journal (2018) 16:9 Page 5 of 13 Table 2 Definitions of VTE and bleeding events in ETNA-VTE-Europe, PREFER in VTE and Hokusai-VTE studies ETNA-VTE-Europe PREFER in VTE [13, 14] Hokusai-VTE [6, 15] VTE Baseline Confirmed first time/recurrent distal/ Confirmed first time/recurrent distal/proximal Confirmed first time/recurrent proximal proximal acute symptomatic DVT acute symptomatic DVT and/or PE acute symptomatic DVT and/or PE and/or PE Recurrent (during study) VTE, as adjudicated by an independent DVT or PE, as diagnosed by investigator DVT, new non-fatal symptomatic/fatal PE, CEC (not adjudicated) as adjudicated by an independent CEC Bleeding Major Overt: fatal, symptomatic in a critical Overt: fatal, symptomatic in a critical area/ Overt: fatal, occurs in a critical site, −1 area/organ, causing a ≥ 2 g/dL fall in organ, causing a ≥ 20 g L fall in haemoglobin associated with a ≥ 2 g/dL decrease in haemoglobin and/or ≥6.0% fall in or transfusion of ≥ 2 units of whole blood haemoglobin or requires a transfusion b b haematocrit or red cells of ≥ 2 units of blood Life-threatening Major: intracranial or associated with Not specified Not specified haemodynamic compromise requiring intervention CRNM Overt: requires medical attention but Overt: does not meet major bleeding criteria Overt: associated with the need for does not fulfil major bleeding criteria but prompts a clinical response (hospital medical intervention, contact with admission/physician-guided treatment/ a physician, interruption of study change in antithrombotic therapy) drug, or discomfort/impairment of ADL, but does not fulfil major bleeding criteria Minor Overt: other; does not fulfil the criteria Overt: other; does not fulfil the criteria for Not specified b b for major/CRNM major/CRNM Legend: DVT, deep-vein thrombosis; PE, pulmonary embolism; VTE, venous thromboembolism; CRNM, clinically relevant non-major; CEC, clinical events committee; ADL, activities of daily living. Members unaware of treatment allocation. As defined by the International Society of Thrombosis and Haemostasis (2005) [11]. Items in bold reflect differences compared to ETNA-VTE-Europe Cohen et al. Thrombosis Journal (2018) 16:9 Page 6 of 13 edoxaban (regardless of treatment discontinuation) and Data will be analysed and presented using descriptive a relative precision of 15% for a two-sided 95% confi- statistics. Categorical variables will be reported as abso- dence interval (95% CI), data for 1964 patients will be lute numbers and percentages, and continuous variables required to assess with sufficient accuracy the primary will be presented as means with standard deviations or outcome. Given an expected dropout rate of 25%, enrol- medians with interquartile ranges and minimum/max- ment of 2700 patients should result in an adequate sam- imum values, alongside the number of missing and non- ple size for evaluation at 18 months. missing observations. For select variables, 95% CIs will In order to obtain a dataset as large as possible for be provided. Where applicable, Kaplan-Meier analysis co-primary outcome assessment, safety data from will be performed to illustrate risk over time. Time-to- ETNA-VTE-Europe will be combined with 18-month event variables will be analysed using Cox proportional safety data from ETNA-AF-Europe, a sister European hazard regression and presented as hazard ratios with PASS study of edoxaban in approximately 13,100 pa- 95% CIs and p-values. The type of VTE (DVT only vs. tients with NVAF [10]. Together, these studies will enrol PE ± DVT) will be included in all Cox models as an add- approximately 15,800 patients, with an overall expected itional covariate. Based on the results of the Hokusai- 18-month dropout rate of 20%. Consequently, data for VTE and the PREFER in VTE studies [6, 13], no further approximately 12,640 patients should be available at confounders will be considered at this stage, but any 18 months to assess the incidence rates of interest and other relevant differences at baseline will be retrospect- their 95% CIs. A key aim of this combined analysis is to ively added to the model. provide sufficient statistical power to capture uncom- A separate analysis combining 18-month safety data from mon ADRs with low incidence rates; for those that occur ETNA-VTE-Europe and ETNA-AF-Europe will address at rates of 0.1–1.0%, the corresponding precision of 95% the co-primary objective. Data will be presented as absolute CIs will range from ±0.06% to 0.17%. and relative frequencies with 95% CIs, overall and for each aforementioned exposure category and subgroup. All statis- tical analyses will be performed using SAS® version 9.3 or Statistical analysis higher (SAS Institute, Cary, NC, USA). Owing to the non-interventional study design, all ETNA-VTE-Europe data analysis will be explorative and Discussion descriptive only. In addition to the Europe-wide analysis, The real-world management of acute VTE has been safety and effectiveness data will be presented for each studied by a number of registries on a national (MAS- individual country and region (Austria, Switzerland and TER and SWIVTER II [18, 19]), European (PREFER in Germany [DACH]; the United Kingdom and Ireland VTE [13]) and global (RIETE, GARFIELD-VTE, RE- [UK/IE]; Belgium and the Netherlands [BE/NL]; and COVERY and XALIA [20–23]) scale. Such registries are Italy). Comparisons between patients in particular edox- important because they include patients who are usually aban exposure categories (current use, recent use [within omitted from clinical trials due to strict inclusion and the last 3 days], and past use [> 3 days ago], as well as exclusion criteria, allowing appraisal of treatment re- use within the last 30 days) will also be performed, with gimes in patients with particular characteristics. Further- outcome data additionally presented for all patients per- more, large-scale, non-interventional studies permit real- manently discontinuing edoxaban. Furthermore, sub- world comparisons across a range of healthcare settings group analyses comparing patients with/without the and geographical locations, which may be helpful for following baseline characteristics are planned: renal im- evaluating the relative efficiency of national healthcare pairment, hepatic impairment, DVT only (vs. PE with/ services and identifying potential improvement strat- without DVT), age ≥ 75 years, male gender, initial 30 mg egies. In this sense, ETNA-VTE Europe is similar to edoxaban dose (vs. 60 mg), and active cancer. existing registries; however, it is different in that it To provide context to our results, the outcomes of focuses on patients receiving edoxaban, a drug that more ETNA-VTE patients will be appraised relative to those recently been approved and is therefore not represented of PREFER in VTE patients treated with a DOAC, PRE- in previous real-world studies. The EMA has reviewed FER in VTE patients treated with a vitamin-K antagonist and approved its study protocol. Accordingly, the (VKA), Hokusai-VTE patients treated with edoxaban, present registry will add value by providing an as-yet- and Hokusai-VTE patients treated with warfarin. These unexplored insight into the use and associated outcomes evaluations will be performed on an entirely visual basis, of this agent in clinical practice. A comparison between with no joint statistical models planned. Given the one- the design of ETNA-VTE Europe and other large-scale year follow up of the PREFER in VTE and Hokusai-VTE VTE-patient registries can be found in Table 3. studies, only 12-month data from ETNA-VTE-Europe Current evidence for the safety and efficacy of edoxa- will be considered for these purposes [12, 13]. ban largely emanates from the phase III Hokusai-VTE Cohen et al. Thrombosis Journal (2018) 16:9 Page 7 of 13 Table 3 Differences in design between ETNA-VTE Europe and other important European and global observational acute VTE registries Study design Geographical Patients Agents of interest Primary objective Enrolment Key outcome measures Status scope period ETNA-VTE Europe Prospective, single-arm, 310 sites across 2700 edoxaban-treated Edoxaban To quantify the real- Q4 2016 – Mortality, recurrent VTE, O observational PASS; 8 European acute DVT and/or PE in/ world, long-term rate Q4 2018 bleeding events, hepatic 18-M FU countries outpatients across multiple of VTE recurrence in events, ADRs, hospitalisation healthcare settings patients prescribed for CV causes,edoxaban edoxaban as part of adherence/discontinuation acute VTE treatment RIETE [21] Prospective, observational 192 sites across 6855 acute DVT and/or Standard therapy To improve physician March 2001 – Mortality, recurrent VTE, C study; 3-M FU 19 countries PE in/outpatients across (pre-DOACs) knowledge of the Feb 2004 bleeding events worldwide (78% a range of healthcare natural history of of data from settings thromboembolic weSpain) disease and develop scores to identify patients at high risk of complications XALIA [22, 24] Prospective, observational Multiple sites 5142 acute DVT (±PE) Rivaroxaban and To assess the safety June 2012 – Mortality, recurrent VTE, C PASS; 12-M FU in 21 countries patients at hospitals or standard therapy and effectiveness March 2014 bleeding events, CV events, worldwide community care centres of rivaroxaban for treatment satisfaction/ the treatment of adherence/discontinuation, symptomatic DVT healthcare resource utilisation, TEAEs PREFER in VTE Prospective, observational 381 sites across 3455 acute DVT and/or DOACs (pre- To explore patient Jan 2013 – Mortality, recurrent VTE, C [13, 14] study; 12-M FU 7 European PE in/outpatients across edoxaban) characteristics, VTE Jan 2014 bleeding events, MI, countries a range of healthcare management strategies, stroke, SE, post- settings healthcare resource thrombotic syndrome, usage and associated CV events costs GARFIELD-VTE Prospective, observational 415 sites across 10,878 acute DVT and/ Standard therapy and To identify regional/ July 2014 – Mortality, recurrent VTE, O [20, 25] study; two sequential 28 countries or PE in/outpatients across DOACs temporal treatment Sept 2016 bleeding events, post- cohorts; 3-Y FU worldwide a range of healthcare variations and assess thrombotic syndrome, settings their impact on clinical/ chronic thromboembolic economic outcomes pulmonary hypertension, healthcare resource utilisation RE-COVERY Prospective, observational ~17 sites in ~ 8000 acute DVT and/or Dabigatran and VKA To characterise the VTE Nov 2015 – Mortality, recurrent VTE, O [23, 26] PASS; 12-M FU 5 countries PE patients patient population and Dec 2018 bleeding events worldwide compare the safety and effectiveness of dabigatran to VKA Legend: Y, year; M, month; DVT, deep vein thrombosis; FU, follow-up; PE, pulmonary embolism; DOAC, direct oral anticoagulant; VTE, venous thromboembolism; TIA, transient ischaemic attack; PASS, post-authorisation safety study; Q4, fourth quarter; MI, myocardial infarction; SE, systemic embolism; CV, cardiovascular; VKA, vitamin-K antagonist, C, completed; O, ongoing, TEAE, treatment-emergent adverse events. Important differences are a b highlighted in bold. Swiss sites: February 2015. Precise number unknown Cohen et al. Thrombosis Journal (2018) 16:9 Page 8 of 13 clinical trial [6]. A key limitation of this study was the evaluation of ETNA-VTE-Europe real-world results in exclusion of patients with characteristics encountered in the context of those from the Hokusai-VTE clinical trial routine clinical practice, such as those with isolated will provide insight into the influence of stringent distal symptomatic DVT, a creatinine clearance of < enrolment criteria and closer monitoring on edoxaban- 30 mL/min, and significant liver disease. Consequently, related outcomes. This will indicate to what extent the the effectiveness and safety in some clinical subgroups encouraging findings from phase III studies can be to edoxaban remain unrepresented and uncharacterised. expected to translate into clinical practice. Data gathered from the ETNA-VTE-Europe study with minimal selection criteria will address this knowledge Potential limitations gap, with several pertinent subgroup analyses already As a prospective, non-interventional registry that aims planned. The gathered data will also provide a snapshot to represent everyday occurrence and management of of the types of patients being prescribed edoxaban, the VTE, the stringent inclusion/exclusion criteria, phys- doses used, and the durations of treatment in a real-life ician/patient blinding, and site/protocol standardisation setting. This will permit appraisal of the appropriateness that typify RTCs do not apply. This introduces the possi- of such therapeutic decisions as well as acting as a marker bility for biases that are difficult to avoid, measure or for evaluation of subsequent trends of prescription. correct for. In particular, heterogeneous timing and An additional limitation of current studies is that data length of edoxaban exposure may prove problematic for are only available for up to 12 months of edoxaban the interpretation of results, thought this will be taken therapy [6]. Considering that a number of patients will into consideration at data analysis. Furthermore, in such require longer-term anticoagulation in clinical practice a large-scale study, some incompleteness, insufficient de- [8], those continuing edoxaban dosing beyond 12 months tail, or inaccuracy of patient data is unavoidable; how- will find themselves in uncharted waters. The 18-month ever, measures such as the careful design of case report follow-up period planned for ETNA-VTE-Europe pa- forms and data monitoring/verification aim to minimise tients will provide clinicians and patients with valuable such occurrences. Despite the inherent limitations asso- information regarding the safety and net clinical benefit ciated with observational registries, the all-inclusive of extended treatment. In particular, trends in rare ADRs nature of ETNA-VTE Europe may be seen as an advan- such as liver events and major bleeding will be of inter- tage for obtaining a realistic snapshot of the clinical est, given their low frequency in the Hokusai-VTE trial climate, with two-wave recruitment potentially allowing [6]. Combination of ETNA-VTE-Europe data with those changes in treatment behaviour over time to be eluci- from the ETNA-AF-Europe sister study will provide an dated. Finally, while the single-arm nature of the study even larger population from which to assess these safety means that direct comparisons with other anticoagulants outcomes [10]. Thus, the present PASS is a responsible and will not be possible, close accordance between the de- important part of the early post-marketing phase, designed signs of PREFER in VTE and ETNA-VTE Europe should to address several of the knowledge gaps highlighted in the permit a reasonable appraisal of outcome differences. EMA risk-management plan for edoxaban [9]. The single-arm design of the ETNA-VTE-Europe study reflects its key aim of characterising the real-world Conclusions safety and effectiveness of edoxaban. However, visually The international, observational ETNA-VTE-Europe comparing our results to those from similar studies with registry will allow the safety and effectiveness of edoxa- different anticoagulants will help to provide perspective. ban in the general population of acute symptomatic To these ends, data from the recent PREFER in VTE VTE patients to be assessed over an extended time real-world registry will be used to contextualise data period. The planned series of explorative analyses will from ETNA-VTE-Europe, selected for its comparable provide essential information regarding edoxaban treat- bleeding definitions, coinciding data assessment time ment in a range of as-yet-unrepresented patient subsets, points, and high patient numbers (3545 patients) [14]. the effect of treatment duration and discontinuation on This will allow us to gain an idea of the real-world safety outcomes, and the relative costs/benefits associated with and effectiveness of edoxaban relative to agents such as edoxaban use compared to that of other commercially VKAs and other DOACs, not only in the overall popula- available anticoagulants. Findings will help to elucidate tion, but also in specific patient subsets, such as those whether the good safety profile observed in the Hokusai- with renal or hepatic impairment. Furthermore, several VTE clinical trial can be extrapolated to the real-world of the countries and regional delineations in ETNA- population, as well as providing a wealth of valuable VTE-Europe (such as Italy, DACH and UK/IE) also information for European practitioners prescribing or feature in the PREFER in VTE study, enabling various contemplating the use of edoxaban as part of VTE treat- approximate geographical comparisons [13]. A further ment/secondary prevention. Cohen et al. Thrombosis Journal (2018) 16:9 Page 9 of 13 Appendix Gent; Karen Wustenberghs, GZA Ziekenhuizen - Campus List of ETNA in VTE investigators Sint-Augustinus, Wilrijk; Roeland Dierickx, Huisartsen Austria Dierickx, Westouter Cihan Ay, Allgemeines Krankenhaus Medizinische Universität Wien, Wien; Matthias Hoke, AKH - Medizinische Germany Universität Wien, Wien; Marianne Brodmann, LKH - Dirk Härtel, Klinikum Lippe GmbH, Detmold; Gunter Universitätsklinikum Graz, Graz; Rudolf Kirchmair, Hergdt, Praxis Dr. med. Gunter Hergdt, Obermichelbach; Medizinische Universität Innsbruck, Innsbruck; Rainer Holger Michel, Gemeinschaftspraxis Michel und Leffler, Mathies, Landeskrankenhaus Feldkirch, Feldkirch; Lutherstadt Eisleben; Annegret Otto, Gemeinschaftspraxis Markus Rauter, Klinikum Klagenfurt am Wörthersee, Dres. med. Stenzel, Ebert & Otto, Riesa; Andreas Rieker, Klagenfurt; Klemens Reinberg, Gemeinschaftspraxis Facharztpraxis Rieker Dr. med. Andreas Rieker - Wachau, Weißenkirchen in der Wachau; Vinzenz Stepan, Venenpraxis im “Gesundheitszentrum Südstraße”, Lauffen Krankenhaus der Elisabethinen Graz, Graz; Thomas am Neckar; Toralf Schwarz, INFO-MED Leipzig GmbH, Maca, Ordination Dr. Maca, Wien; Hans Domanovits, Markkleeberg; Jens Taggeselle, Kardiologische Praxis Dr. AKH - Medizinische Universität Wien, Vienna; Wolfgang Jens Taggeselle, Markkleeberg; Oliver Gastmann, Ilm-Kreis- Salmhofer, Landeskrakenhaus - Universitaetsklinikum Kliniken Arnstadt-Ilmenau gGmbH, Arnstadt; Diana Graz, Graz; Thomas Weiss, Wilhelminenspital der Stadt Razavi, Praxis Diana Razavi, Steinau; Petra Herrmann, Wien, Wien; Walter Klimscha, Sozialmedizinisches Zentrum Praxis Dipl.- Med. Petra Herrmann, Eisenach; Dag- Ost - Donauspital, Vienna; Alexander Kober, Ordination, Alexander Keilhau, Medizinisches Versorgungszentrum für Sankt Aegyd am Neuwalde; Franz Hinterreiter, Konventhos- Innere Medizin, Hamburg; Bernd-Thomas Kellner, pital Barmherzige Brüder, Linz; Johann Auer, KH St. Josef Gemeinschaftspraxis Dres. Niels Erhardt und Bernd- Braunau, Braunau; Armaghan Gomari-Grisar, Krankenhaus Thomas Kellner, Dornburg-Camburg; Diethard Predel, Barmherzige Schwestern Wien, Wien; Joeg Jabkowski, Praxis für Gefäßmedizin, Nordhausen; Rainer Rippert, Krankenhaus der Elisabethinen Linz, Linz; Paul Pinter, Praxis Dr. Rippert, Wiesbaden; Reinhardt Sternitzky, Wahlarzt Ordination, Dr. Paul Pinter, Altenmarkt an Zentrum für klinische Prüfungen in der Facharztzentrum der Triesting Dresden-Neustadt GbR, Dresden; Andor Schmidt, Omdas GmbH and Praxis Dr. med. Andor Schmidt, Offenbach; Belgium Matthias Schulze, Asklepios Klinikum Schwalmstadt, Philippe Hainaut, Cliniques Universitaires Saint-Luc, Schwalmstadt; Heiko Schneider, Medigra - Gemeinschaft- Bruxelles; Laure Gilis, CHC - Clinique St-Jospeh, Liège; spraxis Dres. Heiko Schneider & Peter Rostock, Apolda; Herman Schroe, Ziekenhuis Oost-Limburg, Genk; Jos Franz Wolf, Praxis Dres. Wolf, Straubing; Andreas Greve, Vandekerkhof, Jessa Ziekenhuis - Campus Virga Jesse, Innere Medizin im Gesundheitszentrum, Ahrensburg; Hasselt; Pascal Vranckx, Jessa Ziekenhuis Hospital, Hasselt; Matthias Ulrich, Angiologie am Coppiplatz, Leipzig; Peter Verhamme, UZ Leuven, Leuven; Mikhael Janssen, AZ Norbert Schön, Kardiologie Mühldorf am Inn, Mühldorf; Groeninge - Kennedylaan, Kortrijk; Guy Vereecken, Ver- Günter Rehling, Gemeinschaftspraxis Dres. Michael Eis und eecken Guy, Halen; Luc De Munck, De Munck, Vilvoorde; Günter Rehling, Sand am Main; Bernhard Witzenbichler, Bernard Vandooren, Algemeen Ziekenhuis West, Veurne; HELIOS Amper-Klinikum Dachau, Dachau; Bernadett Johan Duchateau, AZ Sint-Maarten, Duffel; Jan De Letter, Brado, Praxis für Angiologie, Hämatologie, Innere Medizin AZ Sint-Jan Brugge, Brugge; Muriel Lins, AZ Sint-Maarten, Dr. med. Bernadett Brado, Heidelberg-Neuenheim; Thomas Duffel; Jean-Claude Wautrecht, ULB Hopital Erasme, N. Abahji, Ärztehaus GerMedicum,Germering;Johannes Bruxelles; Marc Delforge, CHR de Huy, Huy; Philippe Brachmann, Klinikum Coburg GmbH, Coburg; Hans- Hermans, CHU Saint-Pierre, Bruxelles; Philippe Borgoens, Walter Bindig, Praxis Dr. Bindig, Georgensgmünd; Siamak CHR Citadelle, Liege; Jean-Baptiste Nicolas, CHU UCL Pourhassan, Gemeinschaftspraxis für Gefäßchirurgie/ Namur, Yvoir; Geoffrey Debonnaire, Sint-Elisabeth Gefäßmedizin - Drs. Heim & Pourhassan, Oberhausen; Ziekenhuis, Zottegem; Marion Delcroix, UZ Leuven, Tobias Geisler, Deutsches Herzkompetenzzentrum am Leuven; Stéphane Vanden Bemden, bvba Medisch Universitätsklinikum Tübingen, Tübingen; Berthold Kabinet Dr. Vanden Bemden, Steenokkerzeel; Jaak Amann, Franziskus-Krankenhaus Berlin, Akademisches Mortelmans, Mortelmans, Jaak, Oostham; Muriel Lehrkrankenhaus der Charité, Berlin; Svetlana Tlechas- Sprynger, CHU de Liege, Liège; Yohan Balthazar, Tkatsch, Praxis S. Tlechas-Tkatsch, Potsdam; Markus SPRL MG Balthazar & Ballard, Natoye; Geert Vileyn, Stücker, St. Maria-Hilf-Krankenhaus, Bochum-Gerthe; Huisartsenpraktijk Vileyn bvba, Blankenberge; Michel Rainer Schmiedel, Praxis Dr. med. Rainer Schmiedel, Goetinck, Huisartsenpraktijk De Stoute, Brugge; Bart Segers, Kaiserslautern; Ernst G. Vester, Evangelisches Kranken- Wichelen; Philippe De Vleeschauwer, Heilige Hart Ziekenhuis haus Düsseldorf, Düsseldorf; Janna Dshabrailov, Praxis Dr. Lier, Lier; Michel De Pauw, Universitair Ziekenhuis Gent, Dshabrailov, Osnabrück; Ayham Al-Zoebi, Kardiologische Cohen et al. Thrombosis Journal (2018) 16:9 Page 10 of 13 Praxis Dr. Al-Zoebi, Wermsdorf; Sylvia Baumbach, Gemeinschaftspraxis Mainz Mitte am Gesundheitscentrum Gemeinschaftspraxis Dr. med. Sylvia Baumbach und Dr. Mainz, Mainz; Heiner Müller Heiner, Berufsausübungsge- Elke Reichelt, Apolda; Wilma Grosskopf, Gemeinschaft- meinschaft Dres. med. Kolitsch/Müller, Katzhütte; Stephan spraxis Dres. Josef Anton Großkopf und Wilma Großkopf, Lüders, St. Josefs-Hospital, Cloppenburg; Elvira Maria Wallerfing; Michael Czihal, Klinikum der Universität Lembens, Praxis Dres. Christoph Lembens und Elvira Maria München, München; Christoph Hehrlein, Universitäts- Lembens, Mainz; Werner Jung Werner, Schwarzwald- Herzzentrum Freiburg Bad Krozingen GmbH, Freiburg; Baar Klinikum Villingen-Schwenningen GmbH, Villingen- Thomas Ludwig, Praxis Dr. med. Thomas Ludwig, Schwenningen; Frank Heckmann, Gefäßzentrum Dr. Farchant; Daniel Kretzschmar, Universitätsklinikum Jena, Heckmann und Kollegen, Neckargemuend; Kurt Jocham, Jena; Teja Müller, Praxis Innere Medizin Dr. Teja Müller, Dialysezentrum Memmingen - Internistisches Facharzt- Wehrheim; Harriet Simone Werno, Parcside medical zentrum, Memmingen; Ralf Berg, Praxis im alten Rathaus, center, Nuernberg; Julio Perez-Delgado, Arberlandklinik Einzelpraxis Dr.med.R.Berg, Ühlingen-Birkendorf; Thomas Viechtach, Viechtach; Edelgard Lindhoff-Last, CCB - Dengler, Kreiskrankenaus am Plattenwald, Bad Friedrichshall; Cardioangiologisches Centrum Bethanien, Frankfurt; Uwe Zwettler, Atos clinic Heidelberg, Dres. Heckmann/ Thomas Schmitz-Rixen, Universitätsklinikum Frankfurt, Rieger, Heidelberg; Martin Rieger, Zentrum für Frankfurt am Main; Oliver Ritter, Städtisches Klinikum Gefäßerkrankungen und Präventivmedizin, Neckargemünd; Brandenburg, Brandenburg an der Havel; Thomas May, Pascal Bauer, UKGM - Universitätsklinikum Gießen und Krankenhaus Porz am Rhein gGmbH, Köln; Enno Marburg GmbH, Gießen; Mirko Böhme, Praxis Dr. Mirko Eißfeller, Praxis Dr. med. Eißfeller, Woellstein; Klaus Fenchel, Böhme, Sulzberg; Christian Loges, Drs. Haney/Gehrig/ MVZ MP Saaletal, Saalfeld; Marcus Thieme, MEDINOS Loges, Mosbach; Sebastian Kruse, Gemeinschaftspraxis Kliniken des Landkreises Sonneberg GmbH, Sonneberg; Kruse / Kuth, Aachen-Walheim; Clemens Tebbe, Marien- Christian Heiß, Universitätsklinikum Düsseldorf, Düsseldorf; Hospital Euskirchen, Euskirchen; Oliver Bruder, Elisabeth Thomas Bader, Praxis Dr. med. Bader, Heilbronn-Biberach; Krankenhaus Essen, Essen; Dietrich Gulba, St. Marien Hos- Rainer J. Zotz, Marienhausklinikum Eifel Bitburg, Bitburg; pital, Oberhausen; Norbert Ludwig, Gemeinschaftspraxis Christoph Kalka, Marienhospital Brühl GmbH, Brühl; Prof.Dr. Ludwig, Dr. Honl, Willich; Christoph Nielen, Johannes Haas, CIMS UG mbh, Bamberg; Andreas Gemeinschaftspraxis für Gefäßmedizin GbR, Mönchen- Hagenow,Praxis Dr.med.Andreas Hagenow,Elsterwerda; gladbach; Ulrich Overhoff, Zentrum fuer Praevention und Karl-Heinz Binias, AMEOS Klinikum Schönebeck, Rehabilitation, Siegen; Helmut Renz, Gemeinschaftspraxis Schönebeck; Jan Beyer-Westendorf, Universitätsklinikum Vogelstang, Mannheim; Holger Lawall, Gemeinschaft- Carl Gustav Carus TU Dresden, Dresden; Veselin Mitrovic, spraxis Prof. Dr. med. Curt Diehm und Dr. med. Holger Kerckhoff-Klinik Forschungsgesellschaft mbH, Bad Lawall, Ettlingen; Sabine Genth-Zotz, Katholisches Klini- Nauheim; Wolfram Oettler, Praxis für Gefäßmedizin, kum Mainz, Caritas Werk St. Martin Gem. Träger und Görlitz; Claudia Zemmrich, MVZ Dres. Ramdohr - Betriebsf. GmbH, Mainz; Peter Wirtz, Kreiskrankenhaus Praxis für Cardiovascular und Ultraschalldiagnostik, Mechernich GmbH, Mechernich; Dirk Henning Walter, Berlin; Jaswant Singh, St. Elisabeth-Krankenhaus, Jülich; Kardiologie am Tibarg, Hamburg; Astrid Schmidt- Matthias Leschke, Klinikum Esslingen GmbH, Esslingen a. Reinwald, Praxis Dr. med. Astrid Schmidt-Reinwald, Trier N.; Thomas Herrmann, Fachinternistische Gemeinschaft- spraxis Weinheim, Weinheim; Stefan Hetzel, Gemeinschaft- Ireland spraxis Dres. Hetzel & Grewe-Kemper, Greven; Frank Brian McCullagh, Mater Private Hospital, Dublin; Mike Hamann, Klinikum Konstanz, Konstanz; Christina Hart, Watts, University Hospital Limerick, Limerick; Azhar Bhatti, Universitätsklinikum Regensburg, Regensburg; Matthias Connolly Hospital, Dublin; Peter Branagan, Beaumont Tenholt, Theresienkrankenhaus und St. Hedwig-Klinik Hospital,Dublin; Stuart Carr, Blackrock Clinic, Dublin GmbH, Mannheim; Martin Andrassy, Fürst-Stirum-Klinik Bruchsal, Bruchsal; Andreas Wilke, Kardiologische Praxis Italy Papenburg Dr. Hans-Jürgen Stühn-Pfeifer und Dr. Andreas Michele Dalla Vestra, Ospedale dell’Angelo, Mestre; Wilke, Papenburg; Friederike Baron-Gielnik, CardioMed an Crisitiano Bortoluzzi, Ospedale civile SS. Giovanni e der Alster, Hamburg; Muwafeg Abdel-Qader, Praxis Dr. Paolo, Venezia; David Imberti, Presidio Ospedaliero di med. Abdel-Qader, Winsen; Rainer Hennecke, Dres. Rolf Piacenza Ospedale “Guglielmo Da Saliceto”, Piacenza; Schenk und Rainer Hennecke, Winsen; Birgit Gerecke, Domenico Prisco, Azienda Ospedaliera Universitaria MVZ Ambulantes Kardiologisches Zentrum Peine, Peine; Careggi, Firenze; Serena Rupoli, Azienda Ospedaliero Uwe Gremmler, MVZ Ambulantes Kardiologisches Universitaria Ospedali Riuniti di Ancona "Umberto I, Zentrum Peine, Peine; Volker Eissing, MVZ Birkenallee G.M. Lancisi, G. Salesi", Ancona; Maria Amitrano, GmbH, Papenburg; Nikolaos Proskynitopoulos, Kardiolo- Azienda Ospedaliera San Giuseppe Moscati, Avellino; gische Gemeinschaftspraxis, Nienburg; Stefan Regner, Crisitiana D’Amrosio, Ospedale Ferdinando Veneziale, Cohen et al. Thrombosis Journal (2018) 16:9 Page 11 of 13 Isernia; Angelo Ghirarduzzi, Azienda Ospedaliera Avezzano; Jeness Simona Campodonico, Centro Arcispedale Santa Maria Nuova - IRCCS, Reggio Emilia; Cardiologico Monzino, Milano; Franco Spangaro, Giovanni Di Minno, Azienda Ospedaliera Universitaria Ospedale Cattinara, Trieste Federico II, Napoli; Andrea Fontanella, Ospedale Buon- consiglio - Fondazione Fatebenefratelli, Napoli; Maria Netherlands Teresa De Denato, Azienda Ospedaliera Universitaria S. Michiel Coppens, Academisch Medisch Centrum, Giovanni di Dio - Ruggi D’Aragona, Salerno; Sophie Testa, Amsterdam; Albert Mairuhu, HagaZiekenhuis, Den Haag; ASST di Cremona - Ospedale di Cremona, Cremona; Wim Boersma, Noordwest Ziekenhuisgroep, Alkmaar; Lorenzo Malatino, Azienda Ospedaliera per l’emergenza Marije ten Wolde, Flevoziekenhuis, Almere; Houshang “Canizzaro”, Catania; Francesca Corsini, Ospedale Monajemi, Rijnstate, Arnhem; Heike Noordzij-Nooteboom, Sant’Andrea, La Spezia; Rodolfo Tassara, Presidio Van Weel-Bethesda Ziekenhuis, Dirksland; Gert-Jan Ospedaliero di Savona - Cairo Montenotte Ospedale Braunstahl, Franciscus Gasthuis, Rotterdam; Ragnar San Paolo, Savona; Gabriele Giordano, Villa dei Fiori Lunde, Laurentius Ziekenhuis, Roermond; Sanne van -Casa dicuraprivata,Acerra; AnitaCarlizza, Wissen, Onze Lieve Vrouwe Gasthuis, Locatie Oost, Azienda Ospedaliera San Giovanni Addolorata, Roma; Amsterdam; Adriaan Dees, Ikazia Ziekenhuis, Rotterdam Riccardo Margheriti, Presidio Ospedaliero Giovan Battista Grassi, Roma; Fausto Marrocco, Presidio Ospedaliero Santa Scolastica, Cassino; Raffaele Landolfi, Fondazione Switzerland Policlinico Universitaria “A.Gemelli”, Roma; Sabina Marc Righini, Hopital Universitaire Geneve, Geneva; Villalta, Ospedale di Treviso, Treviso; Adriana Visona, Lucia Mazzolai, Centre Hospitalier Universitaire Vaudois, Presidio Ospedaliero San Giacomo Apostolo, Castelfranco Lausanne; Frederic Baumann, Universitaetsspital Zuerich, Veneto; Egidio Imbalzano, Azienda Ospedaliera Universitaria Zuerich; Marc Schindewolf, University of Bern, Bern; Policlinico “G. Martino”, Messina; Maurilio Cirrito, Daniel Staub, Universitaetsspital Basel, Basel; Juerg H. Fondazione Istituto “G. Giglio”, Cefalù; Massimo Beer, Kantonsspital Baden AG, Baden; Martin Banyai, Arquati, Presidio Ospedaliero Sacco, Milano; Giampiero Cantonal hospital Lucerne, Luzern; Stefan Kradolfer, Avruscio, Azienda Ospedaliera di Padova - Policlinico, Facharzt FMH ALLG. Medizin, Basel; Daniel Erni, Padova; Ginacarlo Agnelli, Azienda Ospedaliera di Perugia, Schwanenpraxis, Luzern Perugia; Lucia Anna Mameli, Ospedale Civile SS Annun- ziata A.S.L.1 Sassari, Sassari; Armando D’Angelo, Ospedale San Raffaele IRCCS, Milano; Roberta Risso, Ospedale Santo United Kingdom Spirito di Bra, Cuneo; Alessandro Celi, Azienda Ospedaliera Karen Breen, Guy’s Hospital, London; Ewart Jackson- Universitaria Pisana - Ospedale di Cisanello, Pisa; Vieri Voyzey, Axbridge and Wedmore Medical Practice, Vannucchi, Presidio Ospedaliero Santa Maria Nuova, Axbridge; Piers Clifford, Wycombe Hospital, High Firenze; Fernando Parente, Ospedale Vito Fazzi, Lecce; Wycombe; Peter MacCallum, Barts Health NHS Francesco Ventrella, Presidio Ospedaliero G. Tatarella, Trust, London; Azhar Zafar, Danes Camp Medical Cerignola; Francesco Dentali, Ospedale di Circolo e Practice, Northampton; Anja Drebes, Royal Free Fondazione Macchi, Varese; Pietro Tropeano, Ospedale London NHS Foundation Trust, London; Asok Santa Maria degli Angeli, Pordenone; Pasquale Morella, Venkataraman, George Eliot Hospital, Nuneaton; Azienda Ospedaliera A. CARDARELLI, Napoli; Aldo Salvi, Gunaratnam Gunathilagan, Queen Elizabeth the Ospedali Riuniti Ancona, Ancona; Gabriele Frausini, Queen Mother Hospital, Margate; Salah Matti, Azienda Ospedaliera MARCHE NORD Presidio Ospedaliero Basingstoke and North Hampshire Hospital, Basing- Santa Croce, Fano; Roberto Catalini, Ospedale Generale stoke; Nicola Stevenson, Arrowe Park Hospital, Provinciale, Macerata; Mauro Campanini, Azienda Wirral; Tamara Everington, Salisbury District Hospital, Ospedaliera Universitaria Maggiore della Carità, Novara; Salisbury; JamesUprichard,StGeorge’sHospital, London; Corrado Amato, Policlinico Universitario Palermo, Palermo; Anand Dixit, Royal Victoria Infirmary, Newcastle upon Monica Demarco, Humanitas Mater Domini, Castellanza; Tyne; Piers Clifford, Hammersmith Hospital, London; Iolanda Enea, Ospedale S. Anna e S. Sebastiano, Caserta; Tina Dutt, Royal Liverpool University Hospital, Liverpool; Nello Zanatta, Ospedale S. Maria dei Battuti, Conegliano Jeremy Platt, The Binfield Surgery, Binfield; Mark Veneto; Rita Pepe, Ospedale S. Eugenio, Roma; Roberto Richardson, Lindum Medical Practice, Lincoln; Paul Cappelli, Azienda Ospedaliera Universitaria Senese, Siena; Gilbert Conn, Ballygomartin Group Practice, Belfast; Stefano Barolo, Ospedale S. Lazzaro, Alba; Giuseppe Charalampos Kartsios, Birmingham Heartlands Hospital, Guigliano, Azienda Ospedaliera Universitaria Federico II, Birmingham; Muhsin Almusawy, Bedford Hospital, Napoli; Beilde Cosmi, Ospedale Sant’Orsola - Malpighi, Bedford; Margaret Bowers, Ulster Hospital South Eastern Bologna; Domenic Blasis, Ospedale SS Filippo e Nicola, Health and Social Care Trust, Belfast. Cohen et al. Thrombosis Journal (2018) 16:9 Page 12 of 13 Abbreviations Sankyo, Eli Lilly, EOS, GSK, Janssen, MSD, Mundipharma, Novartis, Pfizer, ADR: Adverse drug reaction; BE/NL: BELGIUM/the Netherlands; CI: Confidence Roche, Shire, Vertex. interval; CRNM: Clinically relevant non-major bleeding; DACH: Austria, Switzerland Julio Lopez Bastida received honoraria from Daiichi Sankyo. and Germany; DOAC: Direct oral anticoagulant; DVT: Deep vein thrombosis; Petra Laeis, Eva-Maria Fronk, Wolfgang Zierhut, and Thomas Malzer are employees eCRF: Electronic case report form; EDC: Electronic data capture; EMA: European of Daiichi Sankyo Europe GmbH. Medicines Agency; GPP: Good Pharmacoepidemiology Practice; GVP: Good Peter Bramlage received research funding and consultancy honoraria from Pharmacovigilance Practices; LPO: Last patient out; NVAF: Non-valvular atrial Daiichi Sankyo Europe GmbH. He further received funding for drafting the fibrillation; PASS: Post-authorisation safety study; PE: Pulmonary embolism; manuscript. PTS: Post-thrombotic syndrome; SEE: Systemic embolic events; UK/IE: United The members of the Steering Committee received honoraria and travel Kingdom/Ireland; VTE: Venous thromboembolism reimbursements from Daiichi Sankyo Europe GmbH for their participation in Steering Committee Meetings. Acknowledgements We are indebted to all investigators across Austria, Germany, Belgium, Italy, Switzerland, the Netherlands and the UK who have made this registry Publisher’sNote possible. See Appendix for list of Investigators. Springer Nature remains neutral with regard to jurisdictional claims in published maps and institutional affiliations. Funding Daiichi Sankyo Europe GmbH, Munich, Germany. Author details Guy’s and St Thomas’ NHS Foundation Trust, King’s College London, Availability of data and materials London, UK. Clinical Division of Haematology and Haemostaseology, Not applicable. Department of Medicine I, Medical University of Vienna, Vienna, Austria. Department of General Internal Medicine, Cliniques Universitaires Saint Luc, UCL, Bruxelles, Belgium. Centre Hospitalier Universitaire de Saint-Etienne, Authors’ contributions Saint-Priest En Jarez, France. Division of Angiology, Medical Clinic IV, All authors have contributed to the design of the registry and/or the preparation of University Hospital, Ludwig-Maximilians-University, Munich, Germany. the manuscript. EMF was responsible for the analysis of data. ATC and PB drafted National Pulmonary Hypertension Unit, Mater Misericordiae University the first version of the manuscript and the remaining authors made substantial Hospital, Dublin, Ireland. Department of Vascular Medicine, Academic revisions to the manuscript. All authors have approved the version to be published. Medical Center, Amsterdam, The Netherlands. Department of Internal Apart from the selection of the countries, all design aspects were decided by the Medicine, Arterial Investigation Unit, Hospital de Santa Marta, Lisbon, scientific Steering Committee and executed by independent Contract Research Portugal. Respiratory Department, Ramón y Cajal Hospital, Madrid, Spain. organizations. All authors read and approved the final manuscript. Division of Angiology, University Hospital Zurich, Zurich, Switzerland. Institute for Health Economics, Steinbeis-University, Berlin, Germany. Ethics approval and consent to participate 12 13 LEGOS, Université Paris – Dauphine, Paris, France. University of Castilla-La Approval from the responsible ethics committees and institutional review Mancha, Talavera de la Reina, Toledo, Spain. Department of Medicine, boards will be obtained prior to protocol implementation. Informed consent Université Paris Descartes, Paris, France. Daiichi Sankyo Europe GmbH, will be obtained from all patients prior to enrolment and compliance with Munich, Germany. Institute for Pharmacology and Preventive Medicine, the Declaration of Helsinki will be ensured throughout the study. Berlin, Germany. Internal and Cardiovascular Medicine-Stroke Unit, University of Perugia, Perugia, Italy. Consent for publication Not applicable. Received: 16 December 2017 Accepted: 6 February 2018 Competing interests The members of the Steering Committee received honoraria for their advice in the planning of the Registry. They also received honoraria and travel reimbursements References from Daiichi Sankyo Europe GmbH for their participation in Steering Committee 1. Heit JA. Epidemiology of venous thromboembolism. Nat Rev Cardiol. 2015; Meetings. 12:464–74. Alexander T. Cohen, Hervé Décousus, Pedro Marques da Silva, David Jimenez 2. Goldhaber SZ, Bounameaux H. Pulmonary embolism and deep vein Castro, Beatrice Amann-Vesti, Bernd Brüggenjürgen, Eric Vicaut and Giancarlo thrombosis. Lancet. 2012;379:1835–46. Agnelli have received research support and/or honoraria for lectures from a 3. Cushman M, Tsai AW, White RH, Heckbert SR, Rosamond WD, Enright P, number of pharmaceutical companies including Daiichi Sankyo, the sponsor Folsom AR. Deep vein thrombosis and pulmonary embolism in two cohorts: of the registry. the longitudinal investigation of thromboembolism etiology. Am J Med. Cihan Ay received honoraria for lectures from Sanofi, Pfizer/BMS, Daiichi- 2004;117:19–25. Sankyo, Boehringer Ingelheim, and Bayer. Advisory board membership for 4. Heit JA. Predicting the risk of venous thromboembolism recurrence. Am J Pfizer/BMS, Daiichi-Sankyo, Boehringer Ingelheim, and Bayer. Hematol. 2012;87(Suppl 1):S63–7. Philippe Hainaut received honoraria from Daiichi Sankyo Europe GmbH for 5. Giugliano RP, Ruff CT, Braunwald E, Murphy SA, Wiviott SD, Halperin JL, lectures and advisory board membership. Waldo AL, Ezekowitz MD, Weitz JI, Špinar J, et al. Edoxaban versus warfarin Ulrich Hoffmann received honoraria for lectures from Bayer, Daiichi-Sankyo, in patients with atrial fibrillation. N Engl J Med. 2013;369:2093–104. Leo Pharma, Pfizer, Bristol-Meyers, Aspen, Sanofi-Aventis, Amgen. Advisory 6. Buller HR, Decousus H, Grosso MA, Mercuri M, Middeldorp S, Prins MH, board membership for Bayer, Daiichi-Sankyo, Leo Pharma, Sanofi-Aventis, Raskob GE, Schellong SM, Schwocho L, Segers A, et al. Edoxaban versus and Amgen. warfarin for the treatment of symptomatic venous thromboembolism. N Sean Gaine received honoraria for lectures from Actelion Pharmaceuticals Engl J Med. 2013;369:1406–15. Ltd., Bayer, GlaxoSmithKline, Merck Sharpe & Dohme, and has received 7. Lixiana (edoxaban): Summary of Product Characteristics [http://www.ema. advisory and/or drug safety board fees from Astra Zeneca, Actelion europa.eu/docs/en_GB/document_library/EPAR_-_Product_Information/ Pharmaceuticals Ltd., Bayer, GlaxoSmithKline, Novartis, Pfizer and Daiichi- human/002629/WC500189045.pdf]. Accessed 2017. Sankyo, Menerini, and United Therapeutics. 8. Konstantinides SV, Torbicki A, Agnelli G, Danchin N, Fitzmaurice D, Galie N, Michiel Coppens has received research funding and honoraria for Gibbs JS, Huisman MV, Humbert M, Kucher N, et al: 2014 ESC guidelines on consultancy or lecturing from Daiichi Sankyo, Boehringer Ingelheim, Bayer, the diagnosis and management of acute pulmonary embolism. Eur Heart J Bristol-Myers Squibb and Pfizer. 2014, 35:3033–3069, 3069a-3069k. Pierre Levy received honoraria for lectures from AbbVie, Amgen, Gilead, GSK, 9. Summary of the risk management plan (RMP) for Lixiana (edoxaban) [http:// Novo Nordisk, ViiV. Advisory board membership for AbbVie, Actelion, www.ema.europa.eu/docs/en_GB/document_library/EPAR_-_Risk-managem Amgen, Astellas, Bayer, Biogen, Boehringer Ingelheim, Celgène, Daiichi ent-plan_summary/human/002629/WC500186050.pdf]. Accessed 2017. Cohen et al. Thrombosis Journal (2018) 16:9 Page 13 of 13 10. Edoxaban Treatment in Routine Clinical Practice for Patients With Non Valvular Atrial Fibrillation (ETNA-AF-EU: NCT02944019) [https://clinicaltrials. gov/ct2/show/NCT02944019]. Accessed 2017. 11. Schulman S, Kearon C, the SOCOAOTS, Standardization Committee Of The International Society On T, Haemostasis. Definition of major bleeding in clinical investigations of antihemostatic medicinal products in non-surgical patients. J Thromb Haemost. 2005;3:692–4. 12. Investigators TH-V. Edoxaban versus warfarin for the treatment of symptomatic venous thromboembolism. N Engl J Med. 2013;369:1406–15. 13. 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Guideline on good pharmacovigilance practices (GVP) Module VI – Management and reporting of adverse reactions to medicinal products (Rev 1) [http://www.ema.europa.eu/docs/en_GB/document_library/Scientific_ guideline/2014/09/WC500172402.pdf]. Accessed 2017. 17. Public Policy Committee ISoP. Guidelines for good pharmacoepidemiology practice (GPP). Pharmacoepidemiol Drug Saf. 2016;25:2–10. 18. Verso M, Agnelli G, Ageno W, Imberti D, Moia M, Palareti G, Pistelli R, Cantone V. Long-term death and recurrence in patients with acute venous thromboembolism: the MASTER registry. Thromb Res. 2012;130:369–73. 19. Spirk D, Ugi J, Korte W, Husmann M, Hayoz D, Baldi T, Frauchiger B, Banyai M, Aujesky D, Baumgartner I, Kucher N. Long-term anticoagulation treatment for acute venous thromboembolism in patients with and without cancer. The SWIss venous ThromboEmbolism registry (SWIVTER) II. Thromb Haemost. 2011;105:962–7. 20. Weitz JI, Haas S, Ageno W, Angchaisuksiri P, Bounameaux H, Nielsen JD, Goldhaber SZ, Goto S, Kayani G, Mantovani L, et al. Global anticoagulant registry in the field - venous thromboembolism (GARFIELD-VTE). Rationale and design. Thromb Haemost. 2016;116:1172–9. 21. Monreal M, Suarez C, Fajardo JA, Barba R, Uresandi F, Valle R, Rondon P. Management of patients with acute venous thromboembolism: findings from the RIETE registry. Pathophysiol Haemost Thromb. 2003;33:330–4. 22. Ageno W, Mantovani LG, Haas S, Kreutz R, Monje D, Schneider J, van Eickels M, Gebel M, Zell E, Turpie AG. Safety and effectiveness of oral rivaroxaban versus standard anticoagulation for the treatment of symptomatic deep- vein thrombosis (XALIA): an international, prospective, non-interventional study. Lancet Haematol. 2016;3:e12–21. 23. Ageno W, Casella IB, Han CK, Raskob GE, Schellong S, Schulman S, Singer DE, Kimura K, Tang W, Desch M, Goldhaber SZ, RE-COVERY DVT. PE: rationale and design of a prospective observational study of acute venous thromboembolism with a focus on dabigatran etexilate. Thromb Haemost. 2017;117:415–21. 24. Ageno W, Mantovani LG, Haas S, Kreutz R, Haupt V, Schneider J, Turpie AG. XALIA: rationale and design of a non-interventional study of rivaroxaban compared with standard therapy for initial and long-term anticoagulation in deep vein thrombosis. Thromb J. 2014;12:16. 25. About GARFIELD-VTE [http://vte.garfieldregistry.org/about/about-garfield-vte]. Submit your next manuscript to BioMed Central Accessed 2017. and we will help you at every step: 26. RE-COVERY DVT/PE: Global Study on Treatment Secondary Prevention of Acute Venous Thromboembolism. https://clinicaltrials.gov/ct2/show/ • We accept pre-submission inquiries NCT02596230. � Our selector tool helps you to find the most relevant journal � We provide round the clock customer support � Convenient online submission � Thorough peer review � Inclusion in PubMed and all major indexing services � Maximum visibility for your research Submit your manuscript at www.biomedcentral.com/submit http://www.deepdyve.com/assets/images/DeepDyve-Logo-lg.png Thrombosis Journal Springer Journals

Design and rationale of the non-interventional, edoxaban treatment in routiNe clinical prActice in patients with venous ThromboEmbolism in Europe (ETNA-VTE-Europe) study

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Springer Journals
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Copyright © 2018 by The Author(s).
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Medicine & Public Health; Angiology; Cardiology; Hematology
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Abstract

Background: Venous thromboembolism (VTE, including deep vein thrombosis [DVT] and pulmonary embolism [PE]) has an annual incidence rate of 104–183 per 100,000 person-years. After a VTE episode, the two-year recurrence rate is about 17%. Consequently, effective and safe anticoagulation is paramount. Edoxaban is a direct oral anticoagulant (DOAC) approved VTE treatment. Current safety and efficacy data are derived from clinical trials, and information about treatment durations beyond 12 months are not available. Methods: ETNA-VTE-Europe is an 18-month prospective, single-arm, non-interventional, multinational post-authorisation safety study. Approximately 310 sites across eight European countries (Austria, Belgium, Germany, Ireland, Italy, the Netherlands, Switzerland and the United Kingdom) will participate in the study, with the intention to represent the regional distributions of centres, healthcare settings and specialties. An estimated cohort of 2700 patients will be recruited, the only enrolment criteria being acute symptomatic VTE, no participation in an interventional study, and treating physician decision to prescribe edoxaban independently from the registry. Data from patient medical records and/or telephone interviews will be collected at baseline, 1, 3, 6, 12 and 18 months. The primary objective is to evaluate the18-monthrateofsymptomatic VTErecurrenceinpatientswithVTE treatedwithedoxabanoutside aclinicaltrial.The co-primary objective is to evaluate the real-world rates of bleeding and adverse drug reactions. Secondary outcomes include rates of other patient-relevant safety events, adherence to and discontinuation of edoxaban. Furthermore, 12- month ETNA-VTE-Europe data will be considered in the context of those for patients receiving different anticoagulants in the PREFER in VTE registry and Hokusai-VTE clinical trial. (Continued on next page) * Correspondence: alexander.cohen@kcl.ac.uk Guy’s and St Thomas’ NHS Foundation Trust, King’s College London, London, UK Full list of author information is available at the end of the article © The Author(s). 2018, corrected publication May/2018. Open Access This article is distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License (http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0/), which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided you give appropriate credit to the original author(s) and the source, provide a link to the Creative Commons license, and indicate if changes were made. The Creative Commons Public Domain Dedication waiver (http://creativecommons.org/publicdomain/zero/1.0/) applies to the data made available in this article, unless otherwise stated. Cohen et al. Thrombosis Journal (2018) 16:9 Page 2 of 13 (Continued from previous page) Conclusions: ETNA-VTE-Europe will allow the safety and effectivenessofedoxabantobeevaluatedoveranextended period in acute symptomatic VTE patients encountered in routine clinical practice. Findings will be informative for European practitioners prescribing edoxaban as part of real-world VTE treatment/prevention. Trial registration: ClinicalTrials.gov Identifier: NCT02943993. Keywords: Venous thromboembolism (VTE), Edoxaban, Direct oral anticoagulant (DOAC/NOAC), Anticoagulation, Registry Background clinical practice. This study forms part of a global Venous thromboembolism (VTE), which encompasses program and safety data will eventually be pooled with both deep-vein thrombosis (DVT) and pulmonary ETNA-AF-Europe data and with those from similar embolism (PE), has an annual incidence rate of approxi- Japanese, Thai, Chinese, Taiwanese and Korean regional mately 104–183 per 100,000 person-years in individuals registries to assess the safety outcomes associated with of European descent [1]. VTE is the third most common edoxaban on a worldwide scale. cardiovascular disease. The case-fatality rate is higher after PE than after DVT [2, 3]. Nevertheless, both events Methods increase the probability of subsequent recurrent VTE, ETNA-VTE-Europe is a single-arm, multinational, pro- which affects approximately 17% of patients at 2 years, spective, non-interventional PASS, which will be con- indicating that VTE is a chronic disease [4]. Conse- ducted across approximately 310 sites in 8 European quently, effective anticoagulation to treat first-time VTE countries (Austria, Belgium, Germany, Ireland, Italy, the and prevent its recurrence is paramount. Netherlands, Switzerland and the United Kingdom). The Edoxaban is a direct oral anticoagulant (DOAC), registry will enrol approximately 2700 patients with which exerts its effects through inhibition of factor Xa. acute VTE treated with edoxaban, who will be followed Based on results from the ENGAGE AF-TIMI 48 and over the 18 months subsequent to the index VTE. Hokusai-VTE trials [5, 6], it was approved by the Euro- Approval from the responsible ethics committees and in- pean Medicines Agency (EMA) regulatory for two main stitutional review boards will be obtained prior to proto- indications: the prevention of stroke/systemic embolism col implementation. Informed consent will be obtained in patients with non-valvular atrial fibrillation (NVAF) from all patients prior to enrolment and compliance with one or more risk factor, and the treatment/second- with the Declaration of Helsinki will be ensured ary prevention of acute VTE (DVT and/or PE) in adults throughout the study. [7]. However, current evidence for the safety and efficacy of edoxaban is derived from the patient populations en- Objectives and outcome measures rolled in clinical trials. Furthermore, though current The primary objective of ETNA-VTE-Europe is to guidelines recommend that anticoagulation following quantify the long-term rate of VTE recurrence in a large, VTE should be continued for at least 3 months and up real-world population of acute symptomatic VTE pa- to an indefinite duration, depending upon the risk of tients prescribed edoxaban as part of their initial treat- recurrence [8], no data currently exist for treatment with ment regimen. Accordingly, the primary outcome edoxaban beyond 12 months. measure will be the proportion of such patients who As part of an ongoing European risk-management experience recurrent symptomatic VTE on one or more plan, several post-authorisation safety studies (PASS) occasions within the 18 months following their index have been designed to assess the real-world outcomes of VTE, regardless of the length of edoxaban exposure. edoxaban-treated patients in the EMA-approved indica- The co-primary objective is to collect and evaluate tions [9]. Here we describe the design and rationale for real-world safety data regarding adverse drug reactions the “Edoxaban Treatment in routine cliNical prActice (ADRs) in patients treated with edoxaban across the for patients with acute Venous ThromboEmbolism in currently approved indications. Therefore, ETNA-VTE- Europe” (ETNA-VTE-Europe) PASS, the protocol for Europe data will be combined with 18-month safety data which has been reviewed and approved by the EMA’s from the Edoxaban Treatment in routine cliNical PrAc- Pharmacovigilance Risk Assessment Committee (PRAC), tice for patients with non-valvular Atrial Fibrillation in in accordance with new regulatory requirements. The Europe (ETNA-AF-Europe) study, a parallel European aim of this PASS is to gain further insight into the safety PASS evaluating the safety and effectiveness of edoxaban and effectiveness of treatment and secondary prevention in real-world treatment of atrial fibrillation (AF) [10]. of VTE with edoxaban up to 18 months in routine The outcome measure will be the proportion of patients Cohen et al. Thrombosis Journal (2018) 16:9 Page 3 of 13 who experience death (all-cause, cardiovascular, and VTE- taking place in two waves; the first extends from the last related), bleeding events (major, clinically relevant non- quarter of 2016 to the second quarter of 2018 major [CRNM], and minor bleeding; defined according to (Switzerland and Germany) and the second from the International Society on Thrombosis and Haemostasis first quarter of 2017 to the last quarter of 2018 (all other [ISTH] criteria [11]), hepatic events, and/or other ADRs countries). In each country, the recruitment period will before the 18 month time-point in the two studies. last 2 years, with the aim of obtaining a representative Secondary objectives are as follows: to evaluate the study population of approximately 2700 VTE patients effects of persistent edoxaban use and permanent dis- from a variety of healthcare settings. continuation on the rate of recurrent symptomatic VTE; To be included in the study, patients must have been to assess the rates of patient-relevant safety outcomes, diagnosed with initial or recurrent acute VTE (distal or including bleeding, ischaemic/haemorrhagic stroke, sys- proximal DVT and/or PE) that occurred no more than 2 temic embolic events (SEE), post-thrombotic syndrome weeks prior to enrolment. In addition, the treating phys- (PTS), death, and hospitalisation due to cardiovascular ician must have decided to prescribe the patient edoxa- causes; and to characterise the extent of adherence to ban, with indications that are in line with the edoxaban edoxaban, reasons for and rate of discontinuation. To Summary of Product Characteristics (SmPC). All treat- evaluate the effectiveness and safety of edoxaban relative ment decisions are independent of the registry and to other anticoagulants, primary and secondary ETNA- completely at the discretion of the treating physician VTE outcome data will be appraised in the context of and/or patient, with no reimbursement for any drugs or those from the PREFER in VTE real-world registry and therapy received during the study. As such, any con- Hokusai-VTE clinical trial [12, 13]. The influence of comitant treatment is allowed and changes to medica- study setting will also be explored by considering real- tion are unrestricted. The only exclusion criteria are lack world ETNA-VTE data in the context of edoxaban data of written informed consent and participation in a from the Hokusai-VTE clinical trial [12]. simultaneous interventional study. Site selection Documentation and assessment In order to represent the regional distributions of Data for this study will be sourced from medical records centres, healthcare settings, specialties, and approaches and, when in line with routine clinical practice, from to VTE treatment, a sequential site selection process is telephone calls between the patient and treating phys- underway. This involves identification of potential sites, ician. As a non-interventional study, no patient contact, acquisition of relevant institutional details via a feasibil- examinations, laboratory tests or procedures are com- ity questionnaire, assessment of suitability, and invitation pulsory, and will only be carried out at the discretion of to participate. To be considered eligible, sites are re- the treating physician, as and when deemed appropriate quired to have access to acute VTE patients expected to and without registry influence. A standardised electronic receive edoxaban treatment, the ability to access the case report form (eCRF) will be completed by the site Electronic Data Capture (EDC) system and record data shortly after enrolment and again after every interaction in English, and adequate time and staff to perform all with a patient over the subsequent 18 months. The study-related documentation activities. They must also eCRFs will be uploaded to the secure, internet-based agree to complete a screening log with the aim of maxi- Medidata Rave EDC system. mising the potential for consecutive enrolment, and to Given that the edoxaban SmPC recommends 5 days of perform follow-ups according to routine clinical practice. parenteral anticoagulation following VTE before starting There is an upper limit of 100 patients per site. edoxaban treatment [7], baseline is defined as the first day of heparin/fondaparinux administration after the Patient recruitment index acute VTE event. The first data entry, which will The original version of the ETNA-VTE-Europe protocol be completed following enrolment and within 2 weeks was approved by the Swiss Agency for Therapeutic of the index VTE, will include details of baseline patient Products (Swissmedic) and the central Ethics Committee characteristics, comorbidities, VTE-related parameters, in Switzerland in February 2015. Accordingly, Swiss sites past and current therapy, and other relevant assessments began enrolling patients at this time. However, protocol made according to site protocol (Table 1). Memory aids revision was necessary due to a change in EMA legisla- will be provided to all patients at enrolment, with space tion and a revised PRAC process in July 2015. Upon the to record edoxaban-related treatment changes, use of approval of the new protocol by the EMA’sPRAC in concomitant medication, adverse events, hospitalisation, September 2016, Swiss regulatory bodies were informed physician contact, and productivity loss. This aid can be of the changes and new approval sought. Patient recruit- used to assist with recall during subsequent visits/tele- ment according to the revised protocol is now underway, phone calls, but are voluntary and will not be formally Cohen et al. Thrombosis Journal (2018) 16:9 Page 4 of 13 Table 1 Time points for data assessment Baseline* 1 month 3 months 6 months 12 months 18 months Country-specific LPO (1) Eligibility criteria X (2) Baseline characteristics X (3) § § § § § VTE-related parameters XX X X X X (4) Edoxaban therapy XX X X X X Concomitant anticoagulants X X X X X X Interventions X X X X X X (5) Adherence to VTE therapy XX X X X X (6) † Recurrent VTE XX X X X X (7) Other clinical events XX X X X X (8) Hospitalisation for cardiovascular disease XX X X X (9) PTS XX X X (10) Vital signs XX X X X X (9) Laboratory parameters XX X X X X (11) ADRs XX X X X X (1) Legend: VTE, venous thromboembolism; PTS, post-thrombotic syndrome; ADR, adverse drug reaction; LPO, last patient out. Confirmed first or recurrent VTE within the 2 weeks preceding enrolment; treated with edoxaban according to Summary of Product Characteristics; written informed consent; no simultaneous (2) (3) interventional study participation. Age and gender, alcohol consumption, smoking status, frailty, comorbidities, and medical history. Details of past and current VTE risk factors, symptoms, diagnosis, interventions, treatment, and related clinical events (stroke, bleeding events, systemic embolism, non-valvular atrial (4) fibrillation, and malignancies). History and current status, including dose, prescription intervals, and any changes to edoxaban treatment since last data point (5) (6) (including permanent discontinuation, in which case date, reason and subsequent therapy must be provided). Physician judgment only. Timing, diagnosis (7) (8) and interventions. I.e. death, stroke, bleeding events, systemic embolism, non-valvular atrial fibrillation, and malignancies. Admittance and discharge dates, (9) (10) (11) clinical event, and use of the emergency room and/or intensive care unit. If assessed. Including blood pressure, heart rate, height and weight. As per the Guideline on Good Pharmacovigilance Practices (GVP) Module VI (Management and reporting of adverse reactions to medicinal products; EMA/873138/2011 Rev. 1) [16]; coding according to the standardised Medical Dictionary for Regulatory Activities (MedDRA).*Defined as the first day of heparin administration after the † § index acute VTE event. Since 18-month time point. Changes in symptoms/diagnosis and any other VTE-relevant information assessed. In each country, all patients will be followed provided in Table 2. Permanent edoxaban discontinuation until the last patient for that particular country has com- is defined as cessation of edoxaban treatment within the pleted the 18-month documentation period, in line with follow-up period. EMA requirements. At this point, a last-patient-out (LPO) questionnaire, requesting a minimum of vital sta- Quality control tus, will be issued for each patient enrolled in the re- ETNA-VTE-Europe will be conducted in accordance spective country. with the Guidelines for Good Pharmacoepidemiology Upon completion of the ETNA-VTE-Europe registry, Practice (GPP) and the EMA Guideline on Good Phar- data will be extracted for the following time points: macovigilance Practices (GVP) Module VIII (manage- baseline, 1, 3, 6, 12 and 18 months. Details of the param- ment and reporting of adverse reactions to medicinal eters to be evaluated at each time point are outlined in products; EMA/813938/2011 rev 1) [16, 17]. Automated Table 1. The current status, change/events since baseline checks for plausibility and integrity will be carried out at and change/events since the previous time point will be data entry to permit correction or confirmation by the assessed for each parameter, as appropriate. In addition, site. Furthermore, approximately 30% of sites will be recurrence of symptomatic VTE and death since the 18- randomly selected to undergo on-site monitoring, during month time point will be retrospectively documented at which random source data verification will be per- the time of LPO per country. formed. In particular, monitoring activities will closely assess the completeness and correctness of safety data. Definitions Patients with missing observations for a particular time All variables in the ETNA-VTE-Europe study are defined point and/or parameter will be omitted from the corre- as similarly as possible to those in the PREFER in VTE sponding analyses. and Hokusai-VTE studies to permit close comparison of results [6, 13–15]. However, the feasibility of this is some- Sample size calculations what limited by the non-interventional setting. A com- Assuming an overall 18-month symptomatic VTE recur- parison of the most important variable definitions is rence rate [12, 13] of 8.0% in patients who receive Cohen et al. Thrombosis Journal (2018) 16:9 Page 5 of 13 Table 2 Definitions of VTE and bleeding events in ETNA-VTE-Europe, PREFER in VTE and Hokusai-VTE studies ETNA-VTE-Europe PREFER in VTE [13, 14] Hokusai-VTE [6, 15] VTE Baseline Confirmed first time/recurrent distal/ Confirmed first time/recurrent distal/proximal Confirmed first time/recurrent proximal proximal acute symptomatic DVT acute symptomatic DVT and/or PE acute symptomatic DVT and/or PE and/or PE Recurrent (during study) VTE, as adjudicated by an independent DVT or PE, as diagnosed by investigator DVT, new non-fatal symptomatic/fatal PE, CEC (not adjudicated) as adjudicated by an independent CEC Bleeding Major Overt: fatal, symptomatic in a critical Overt: fatal, symptomatic in a critical area/ Overt: fatal, occurs in a critical site, −1 area/organ, causing a ≥ 2 g/dL fall in organ, causing a ≥ 20 g L fall in haemoglobin associated with a ≥ 2 g/dL decrease in haemoglobin and/or ≥6.0% fall in or transfusion of ≥ 2 units of whole blood haemoglobin or requires a transfusion b b haematocrit or red cells of ≥ 2 units of blood Life-threatening Major: intracranial or associated with Not specified Not specified haemodynamic compromise requiring intervention CRNM Overt: requires medical attention but Overt: does not meet major bleeding criteria Overt: associated with the need for does not fulfil major bleeding criteria but prompts a clinical response (hospital medical intervention, contact with admission/physician-guided treatment/ a physician, interruption of study change in antithrombotic therapy) drug, or discomfort/impairment of ADL, but does not fulfil major bleeding criteria Minor Overt: other; does not fulfil the criteria Overt: other; does not fulfil the criteria for Not specified b b for major/CRNM major/CRNM Legend: DVT, deep-vein thrombosis; PE, pulmonary embolism; VTE, venous thromboembolism; CRNM, clinically relevant non-major; CEC, clinical events committee; ADL, activities of daily living. Members unaware of treatment allocation. As defined by the International Society of Thrombosis and Haemostasis (2005) [11]. Items in bold reflect differences compared to ETNA-VTE-Europe Cohen et al. Thrombosis Journal (2018) 16:9 Page 6 of 13 edoxaban (regardless of treatment discontinuation) and Data will be analysed and presented using descriptive a relative precision of 15% for a two-sided 95% confi- statistics. Categorical variables will be reported as abso- dence interval (95% CI), data for 1964 patients will be lute numbers and percentages, and continuous variables required to assess with sufficient accuracy the primary will be presented as means with standard deviations or outcome. Given an expected dropout rate of 25%, enrol- medians with interquartile ranges and minimum/max- ment of 2700 patients should result in an adequate sam- imum values, alongside the number of missing and non- ple size for evaluation at 18 months. missing observations. For select variables, 95% CIs will In order to obtain a dataset as large as possible for be provided. Where applicable, Kaplan-Meier analysis co-primary outcome assessment, safety data from will be performed to illustrate risk over time. Time-to- ETNA-VTE-Europe will be combined with 18-month event variables will be analysed using Cox proportional safety data from ETNA-AF-Europe, a sister European hazard regression and presented as hazard ratios with PASS study of edoxaban in approximately 13,100 pa- 95% CIs and p-values. The type of VTE (DVT only vs. tients with NVAF [10]. Together, these studies will enrol PE ± DVT) will be included in all Cox models as an add- approximately 15,800 patients, with an overall expected itional covariate. Based on the results of the Hokusai- 18-month dropout rate of 20%. Consequently, data for VTE and the PREFER in VTE studies [6, 13], no further approximately 12,640 patients should be available at confounders will be considered at this stage, but any 18 months to assess the incidence rates of interest and other relevant differences at baseline will be retrospect- their 95% CIs. A key aim of this combined analysis is to ively added to the model. provide sufficient statistical power to capture uncom- A separate analysis combining 18-month safety data from mon ADRs with low incidence rates; for those that occur ETNA-VTE-Europe and ETNA-AF-Europe will address at rates of 0.1–1.0%, the corresponding precision of 95% the co-primary objective. Data will be presented as absolute CIs will range from ±0.06% to 0.17%. and relative frequencies with 95% CIs, overall and for each aforementioned exposure category and subgroup. All statis- tical analyses will be performed using SAS® version 9.3 or Statistical analysis higher (SAS Institute, Cary, NC, USA). Owing to the non-interventional study design, all ETNA-VTE-Europe data analysis will be explorative and Discussion descriptive only. In addition to the Europe-wide analysis, The real-world management of acute VTE has been safety and effectiveness data will be presented for each studied by a number of registries on a national (MAS- individual country and region (Austria, Switzerland and TER and SWIVTER II [18, 19]), European (PREFER in Germany [DACH]; the United Kingdom and Ireland VTE [13]) and global (RIETE, GARFIELD-VTE, RE- [UK/IE]; Belgium and the Netherlands [BE/NL]; and COVERY and XALIA [20–23]) scale. Such registries are Italy). Comparisons between patients in particular edox- important because they include patients who are usually aban exposure categories (current use, recent use [within omitted from clinical trials due to strict inclusion and the last 3 days], and past use [> 3 days ago], as well as exclusion criteria, allowing appraisal of treatment re- use within the last 30 days) will also be performed, with gimes in patients with particular characteristics. Further- outcome data additionally presented for all patients per- more, large-scale, non-interventional studies permit real- manently discontinuing edoxaban. Furthermore, sub- world comparisons across a range of healthcare settings group analyses comparing patients with/without the and geographical locations, which may be helpful for following baseline characteristics are planned: renal im- evaluating the relative efficiency of national healthcare pairment, hepatic impairment, DVT only (vs. PE with/ services and identifying potential improvement strat- without DVT), age ≥ 75 years, male gender, initial 30 mg egies. In this sense, ETNA-VTE Europe is similar to edoxaban dose (vs. 60 mg), and active cancer. existing registries; however, it is different in that it To provide context to our results, the outcomes of focuses on patients receiving edoxaban, a drug that more ETNA-VTE patients will be appraised relative to those recently been approved and is therefore not represented of PREFER in VTE patients treated with a DOAC, PRE- in previous real-world studies. The EMA has reviewed FER in VTE patients treated with a vitamin-K antagonist and approved its study protocol. Accordingly, the (VKA), Hokusai-VTE patients treated with edoxaban, present registry will add value by providing an as-yet- and Hokusai-VTE patients treated with warfarin. These unexplored insight into the use and associated outcomes evaluations will be performed on an entirely visual basis, of this agent in clinical practice. A comparison between with no joint statistical models planned. Given the one- the design of ETNA-VTE Europe and other large-scale year follow up of the PREFER in VTE and Hokusai-VTE VTE-patient registries can be found in Table 3. studies, only 12-month data from ETNA-VTE-Europe Current evidence for the safety and efficacy of edoxa- will be considered for these purposes [12, 13]. ban largely emanates from the phase III Hokusai-VTE Cohen et al. Thrombosis Journal (2018) 16:9 Page 7 of 13 Table 3 Differences in design between ETNA-VTE Europe and other important European and global observational acute VTE registries Study design Geographical Patients Agents of interest Primary objective Enrolment Key outcome measures Status scope period ETNA-VTE Europe Prospective, single-arm, 310 sites across 2700 edoxaban-treated Edoxaban To quantify the real- Q4 2016 – Mortality, recurrent VTE, O observational PASS; 8 European acute DVT and/or PE in/ world, long-term rate Q4 2018 bleeding events, hepatic 18-M FU countries outpatients across multiple of VTE recurrence in events, ADRs, hospitalisation healthcare settings patients prescribed for CV causes,edoxaban edoxaban as part of adherence/discontinuation acute VTE treatment RIETE [21] Prospective, observational 192 sites across 6855 acute DVT and/or Standard therapy To improve physician March 2001 – Mortality, recurrent VTE, C study; 3-M FU 19 countries PE in/outpatients across (pre-DOACs) knowledge of the Feb 2004 bleeding events worldwide (78% a range of healthcare natural history of of data from settings thromboembolic weSpain) disease and develop scores to identify patients at high risk of complications XALIA [22, 24] Prospective, observational Multiple sites 5142 acute DVT (±PE) Rivaroxaban and To assess the safety June 2012 – Mortality, recurrent VTE, C PASS; 12-M FU in 21 countries patients at hospitals or standard therapy and effectiveness March 2014 bleeding events, CV events, worldwide community care centres of rivaroxaban for treatment satisfaction/ the treatment of adherence/discontinuation, symptomatic DVT healthcare resource utilisation, TEAEs PREFER in VTE Prospective, observational 381 sites across 3455 acute DVT and/or DOACs (pre- To explore patient Jan 2013 – Mortality, recurrent VTE, C [13, 14] study; 12-M FU 7 European PE in/outpatients across edoxaban) characteristics, VTE Jan 2014 bleeding events, MI, countries a range of healthcare management strategies, stroke, SE, post- settings healthcare resource thrombotic syndrome, usage and associated CV events costs GARFIELD-VTE Prospective, observational 415 sites across 10,878 acute DVT and/ Standard therapy and To identify regional/ July 2014 – Mortality, recurrent VTE, O [20, 25] study; two sequential 28 countries or PE in/outpatients across DOACs temporal treatment Sept 2016 bleeding events, post- cohorts; 3-Y FU worldwide a range of healthcare variations and assess thrombotic syndrome, settings their impact on clinical/ chronic thromboembolic economic outcomes pulmonary hypertension, healthcare resource utilisation RE-COVERY Prospective, observational ~17 sites in ~ 8000 acute DVT and/or Dabigatran and VKA To characterise the VTE Nov 2015 – Mortality, recurrent VTE, O [23, 26] PASS; 12-M FU 5 countries PE patients patient population and Dec 2018 bleeding events worldwide compare the safety and effectiveness of dabigatran to VKA Legend: Y, year; M, month; DVT, deep vein thrombosis; FU, follow-up; PE, pulmonary embolism; DOAC, direct oral anticoagulant; VTE, venous thromboembolism; TIA, transient ischaemic attack; PASS, post-authorisation safety study; Q4, fourth quarter; MI, myocardial infarction; SE, systemic embolism; CV, cardiovascular; VKA, vitamin-K antagonist, C, completed; O, ongoing, TEAE, treatment-emergent adverse events. Important differences are a b highlighted in bold. Swiss sites: February 2015. Precise number unknown Cohen et al. Thrombosis Journal (2018) 16:9 Page 8 of 13 clinical trial [6]. A key limitation of this study was the evaluation of ETNA-VTE-Europe real-world results in exclusion of patients with characteristics encountered in the context of those from the Hokusai-VTE clinical trial routine clinical practice, such as those with isolated will provide insight into the influence of stringent distal symptomatic DVT, a creatinine clearance of < enrolment criteria and closer monitoring on edoxaban- 30 mL/min, and significant liver disease. Consequently, related outcomes. This will indicate to what extent the the effectiveness and safety in some clinical subgroups encouraging findings from phase III studies can be to edoxaban remain unrepresented and uncharacterised. expected to translate into clinical practice. Data gathered from the ETNA-VTE-Europe study with minimal selection criteria will address this knowledge Potential limitations gap, with several pertinent subgroup analyses already As a prospective, non-interventional registry that aims planned. The gathered data will also provide a snapshot to represent everyday occurrence and management of of the types of patients being prescribed edoxaban, the VTE, the stringent inclusion/exclusion criteria, phys- doses used, and the durations of treatment in a real-life ician/patient blinding, and site/protocol standardisation setting. This will permit appraisal of the appropriateness that typify RTCs do not apply. This introduces the possi- of such therapeutic decisions as well as acting as a marker bility for biases that are difficult to avoid, measure or for evaluation of subsequent trends of prescription. correct for. In particular, heterogeneous timing and An additional limitation of current studies is that data length of edoxaban exposure may prove problematic for are only available for up to 12 months of edoxaban the interpretation of results, thought this will be taken therapy [6]. Considering that a number of patients will into consideration at data analysis. Furthermore, in such require longer-term anticoagulation in clinical practice a large-scale study, some incompleteness, insufficient de- [8], those continuing edoxaban dosing beyond 12 months tail, or inaccuracy of patient data is unavoidable; how- will find themselves in uncharted waters. The 18-month ever, measures such as the careful design of case report follow-up period planned for ETNA-VTE-Europe pa- forms and data monitoring/verification aim to minimise tients will provide clinicians and patients with valuable such occurrences. Despite the inherent limitations asso- information regarding the safety and net clinical benefit ciated with observational registries, the all-inclusive of extended treatment. In particular, trends in rare ADRs nature of ETNA-VTE Europe may be seen as an advan- such as liver events and major bleeding will be of inter- tage for obtaining a realistic snapshot of the clinical est, given their low frequency in the Hokusai-VTE trial climate, with two-wave recruitment potentially allowing [6]. Combination of ETNA-VTE-Europe data with those changes in treatment behaviour over time to be eluci- from the ETNA-AF-Europe sister study will provide an dated. Finally, while the single-arm nature of the study even larger population from which to assess these safety means that direct comparisons with other anticoagulants outcomes [10]. Thus, the present PASS is a responsible and will not be possible, close accordance between the de- important part of the early post-marketing phase, designed signs of PREFER in VTE and ETNA-VTE Europe should to address several of the knowledge gaps highlighted in the permit a reasonable appraisal of outcome differences. EMA risk-management plan for edoxaban [9]. The single-arm design of the ETNA-VTE-Europe study reflects its key aim of characterising the real-world Conclusions safety and effectiveness of edoxaban. However, visually The international, observational ETNA-VTE-Europe comparing our results to those from similar studies with registry will allow the safety and effectiveness of edoxa- different anticoagulants will help to provide perspective. ban in the general population of acute symptomatic To these ends, data from the recent PREFER in VTE VTE patients to be assessed over an extended time real-world registry will be used to contextualise data period. The planned series of explorative analyses will from ETNA-VTE-Europe, selected for its comparable provide essential information regarding edoxaban treat- bleeding definitions, coinciding data assessment time ment in a range of as-yet-unrepresented patient subsets, points, and high patient numbers (3545 patients) [14]. the effect of treatment duration and discontinuation on This will allow us to gain an idea of the real-world safety outcomes, and the relative costs/benefits associated with and effectiveness of edoxaban relative to agents such as edoxaban use compared to that of other commercially VKAs and other DOACs, not only in the overall popula- available anticoagulants. Findings will help to elucidate tion, but also in specific patient subsets, such as those whether the good safety profile observed in the Hokusai- with renal or hepatic impairment. Furthermore, several VTE clinical trial can be extrapolated to the real-world of the countries and regional delineations in ETNA- population, as well as providing a wealth of valuable VTE-Europe (such as Italy, DACH and UK/IE) also information for European practitioners prescribing or feature in the PREFER in VTE study, enabling various contemplating the use of edoxaban as part of VTE treat- approximate geographical comparisons [13]. A further ment/secondary prevention. Cohen et al. Thrombosis Journal (2018) 16:9 Page 9 of 13 Appendix Gent; Karen Wustenberghs, GZA Ziekenhuizen - Campus List of ETNA in VTE investigators Sint-Augustinus, Wilrijk; Roeland Dierickx, Huisartsen Austria Dierickx, Westouter Cihan Ay, Allgemeines Krankenhaus Medizinische Universität Wien, Wien; Matthias Hoke, AKH - Medizinische Germany Universität Wien, Wien; Marianne Brodmann, LKH - Dirk Härtel, Klinikum Lippe GmbH, Detmold; Gunter Universitätsklinikum Graz, Graz; Rudolf Kirchmair, Hergdt, Praxis Dr. med. Gunter Hergdt, Obermichelbach; Medizinische Universität Innsbruck, Innsbruck; Rainer Holger Michel, Gemeinschaftspraxis Michel und Leffler, Mathies, Landeskrankenhaus Feldkirch, Feldkirch; Lutherstadt Eisleben; Annegret Otto, Gemeinschaftspraxis Markus Rauter, Klinikum Klagenfurt am Wörthersee, Dres. med. Stenzel, Ebert & Otto, Riesa; Andreas Rieker, Klagenfurt; Klemens Reinberg, Gemeinschaftspraxis Facharztpraxis Rieker Dr. med. Andreas Rieker - Wachau, Weißenkirchen in der Wachau; Vinzenz Stepan, Venenpraxis im “Gesundheitszentrum Südstraße”, Lauffen Krankenhaus der Elisabethinen Graz, Graz; Thomas am Neckar; Toralf Schwarz, INFO-MED Leipzig GmbH, Maca, Ordination Dr. Maca, Wien; Hans Domanovits, Markkleeberg; Jens Taggeselle, Kardiologische Praxis Dr. AKH - Medizinische Universität Wien, Vienna; Wolfgang Jens Taggeselle, Markkleeberg; Oliver Gastmann, Ilm-Kreis- Salmhofer, Landeskrakenhaus - Universitaetsklinikum Kliniken Arnstadt-Ilmenau gGmbH, Arnstadt; Diana Graz, Graz; Thomas Weiss, Wilhelminenspital der Stadt Razavi, Praxis Diana Razavi, Steinau; Petra Herrmann, Wien, Wien; Walter Klimscha, Sozialmedizinisches Zentrum Praxis Dipl.- Med. Petra Herrmann, Eisenach; Dag- Ost - Donauspital, Vienna; Alexander Kober, Ordination, Alexander Keilhau, Medizinisches Versorgungszentrum für Sankt Aegyd am Neuwalde; Franz Hinterreiter, Konventhos- Innere Medizin, Hamburg; Bernd-Thomas Kellner, pital Barmherzige Brüder, Linz; Johann Auer, KH St. Josef Gemeinschaftspraxis Dres. Niels Erhardt und Bernd- Braunau, Braunau; Armaghan Gomari-Grisar, Krankenhaus Thomas Kellner, Dornburg-Camburg; Diethard Predel, Barmherzige Schwestern Wien, Wien; Joeg Jabkowski, Praxis für Gefäßmedizin, Nordhausen; Rainer Rippert, Krankenhaus der Elisabethinen Linz, Linz; Paul Pinter, Praxis Dr. Rippert, Wiesbaden; Reinhardt Sternitzky, Wahlarzt Ordination, Dr. Paul Pinter, Altenmarkt an Zentrum für klinische Prüfungen in der Facharztzentrum der Triesting Dresden-Neustadt GbR, Dresden; Andor Schmidt, Omdas GmbH and Praxis Dr. med. Andor Schmidt, Offenbach; Belgium Matthias Schulze, Asklepios Klinikum Schwalmstadt, Philippe Hainaut, Cliniques Universitaires Saint-Luc, Schwalmstadt; Heiko Schneider, Medigra - Gemeinschaft- Bruxelles; Laure Gilis, CHC - Clinique St-Jospeh, Liège; spraxis Dres. Heiko Schneider & Peter Rostock, Apolda; Herman Schroe, Ziekenhuis Oost-Limburg, Genk; Jos Franz Wolf, Praxis Dres. Wolf, Straubing; Andreas Greve, Vandekerkhof, Jessa Ziekenhuis - Campus Virga Jesse, Innere Medizin im Gesundheitszentrum, Ahrensburg; Hasselt; Pascal Vranckx, Jessa Ziekenhuis Hospital, Hasselt; Matthias Ulrich, Angiologie am Coppiplatz, Leipzig; Peter Verhamme, UZ Leuven, Leuven; Mikhael Janssen, AZ Norbert Schön, Kardiologie Mühldorf am Inn, Mühldorf; Groeninge - Kennedylaan, Kortrijk; Guy Vereecken, Ver- Günter Rehling, Gemeinschaftspraxis Dres. Michael Eis und eecken Guy, Halen; Luc De Munck, De Munck, Vilvoorde; Günter Rehling, Sand am Main; Bernhard Witzenbichler, Bernard Vandooren, Algemeen Ziekenhuis West, Veurne; HELIOS Amper-Klinikum Dachau, Dachau; Bernadett Johan Duchateau, AZ Sint-Maarten, Duffel; Jan De Letter, Brado, Praxis für Angiologie, Hämatologie, Innere Medizin AZ Sint-Jan Brugge, Brugge; Muriel Lins, AZ Sint-Maarten, Dr. med. Bernadett Brado, Heidelberg-Neuenheim; Thomas Duffel; Jean-Claude Wautrecht, ULB Hopital Erasme, N. Abahji, Ärztehaus GerMedicum,Germering;Johannes Bruxelles; Marc Delforge, CHR de Huy, Huy; Philippe Brachmann, Klinikum Coburg GmbH, Coburg; Hans- Hermans, CHU Saint-Pierre, Bruxelles; Philippe Borgoens, Walter Bindig, Praxis Dr. Bindig, Georgensgmünd; Siamak CHR Citadelle, Liege; Jean-Baptiste Nicolas, CHU UCL Pourhassan, Gemeinschaftspraxis für Gefäßchirurgie/ Namur, Yvoir; Geoffrey Debonnaire, Sint-Elisabeth Gefäßmedizin - Drs. Heim & Pourhassan, Oberhausen; Ziekenhuis, Zottegem; Marion Delcroix, UZ Leuven, Tobias Geisler, Deutsches Herzkompetenzzentrum am Leuven; Stéphane Vanden Bemden, bvba Medisch Universitätsklinikum Tübingen, Tübingen; Berthold Kabinet Dr. Vanden Bemden, Steenokkerzeel; Jaak Amann, Franziskus-Krankenhaus Berlin, Akademisches Mortelmans, Mortelmans, Jaak, Oostham; Muriel Lehrkrankenhaus der Charité, Berlin; Svetlana Tlechas- Sprynger, CHU de Liege, Liège; Yohan Balthazar, Tkatsch, Praxis S. Tlechas-Tkatsch, Potsdam; Markus SPRL MG Balthazar & Ballard, Natoye; Geert Vileyn, Stücker, St. Maria-Hilf-Krankenhaus, Bochum-Gerthe; Huisartsenpraktijk Vileyn bvba, Blankenberge; Michel Rainer Schmiedel, Praxis Dr. med. Rainer Schmiedel, Goetinck, Huisartsenpraktijk De Stoute, Brugge; Bart Segers, Kaiserslautern; Ernst G. Vester, Evangelisches Kranken- Wichelen; Philippe De Vleeschauwer, Heilige Hart Ziekenhuis haus Düsseldorf, Düsseldorf; Janna Dshabrailov, Praxis Dr. Lier, Lier; Michel De Pauw, Universitair Ziekenhuis Gent, Dshabrailov, Osnabrück; Ayham Al-Zoebi, Kardiologische Cohen et al. Thrombosis Journal (2018) 16:9 Page 10 of 13 Praxis Dr. Al-Zoebi, Wermsdorf; Sylvia Baumbach, Gemeinschaftspraxis Mainz Mitte am Gesundheitscentrum Gemeinschaftspraxis Dr. med. Sylvia Baumbach und Dr. Mainz, Mainz; Heiner Müller Heiner, Berufsausübungsge- Elke Reichelt, Apolda; Wilma Grosskopf, Gemeinschaft- meinschaft Dres. med. Kolitsch/Müller, Katzhütte; Stephan spraxis Dres. Josef Anton Großkopf und Wilma Großkopf, Lüders, St. Josefs-Hospital, Cloppenburg; Elvira Maria Wallerfing; Michael Czihal, Klinikum der Universität Lembens, Praxis Dres. Christoph Lembens und Elvira Maria München, München; Christoph Hehrlein, Universitäts- Lembens, Mainz; Werner Jung Werner, Schwarzwald- Herzzentrum Freiburg Bad Krozingen GmbH, Freiburg; Baar Klinikum Villingen-Schwenningen GmbH, Villingen- Thomas Ludwig, Praxis Dr. med. Thomas Ludwig, Schwenningen; Frank Heckmann, Gefäßzentrum Dr. Farchant; Daniel Kretzschmar, Universitätsklinikum Jena, Heckmann und Kollegen, Neckargemuend; Kurt Jocham, Jena; Teja Müller, Praxis Innere Medizin Dr. Teja Müller, Dialysezentrum Memmingen - Internistisches Facharzt- Wehrheim; Harriet Simone Werno, Parcside medical zentrum, Memmingen; Ralf Berg, Praxis im alten Rathaus, center, Nuernberg; Julio Perez-Delgado, Arberlandklinik Einzelpraxis Dr.med.R.Berg, Ühlingen-Birkendorf; Thomas Viechtach, Viechtach; Edelgard Lindhoff-Last, CCB - Dengler, Kreiskrankenaus am Plattenwald, Bad Friedrichshall; Cardioangiologisches Centrum Bethanien, Frankfurt; Uwe Zwettler, Atos clinic Heidelberg, Dres. Heckmann/ Thomas Schmitz-Rixen, Universitätsklinikum Frankfurt, Rieger, Heidelberg; Martin Rieger, Zentrum für Frankfurt am Main; Oliver Ritter, Städtisches Klinikum Gefäßerkrankungen und Präventivmedizin, Neckargemünd; Brandenburg, Brandenburg an der Havel; Thomas May, Pascal Bauer, UKGM - Universitätsklinikum Gießen und Krankenhaus Porz am Rhein gGmbH, Köln; Enno Marburg GmbH, Gießen; Mirko Böhme, Praxis Dr. Mirko Eißfeller, Praxis Dr. med. Eißfeller, Woellstein; Klaus Fenchel, Böhme, Sulzberg; Christian Loges, Drs. Haney/Gehrig/ MVZ MP Saaletal, Saalfeld; Marcus Thieme, MEDINOS Loges, Mosbach; Sebastian Kruse, Gemeinschaftspraxis Kliniken des Landkreises Sonneberg GmbH, Sonneberg; Kruse / Kuth, Aachen-Walheim; Clemens Tebbe, Marien- Christian Heiß, Universitätsklinikum Düsseldorf, Düsseldorf; Hospital Euskirchen, Euskirchen; Oliver Bruder, Elisabeth Thomas Bader, Praxis Dr. med. Bader, Heilbronn-Biberach; Krankenhaus Essen, Essen; Dietrich Gulba, St. Marien Hos- Rainer J. Zotz, Marienhausklinikum Eifel Bitburg, Bitburg; pital, Oberhausen; Norbert Ludwig, Gemeinschaftspraxis Christoph Kalka, Marienhospital Brühl GmbH, Brühl; Prof.Dr. Ludwig, Dr. Honl, Willich; Christoph Nielen, Johannes Haas, CIMS UG mbh, Bamberg; Andreas Gemeinschaftspraxis für Gefäßmedizin GbR, Mönchen- Hagenow,Praxis Dr.med.Andreas Hagenow,Elsterwerda; gladbach; Ulrich Overhoff, Zentrum fuer Praevention und Karl-Heinz Binias, AMEOS Klinikum Schönebeck, Rehabilitation, Siegen; Helmut Renz, Gemeinschaftspraxis Schönebeck; Jan Beyer-Westendorf, Universitätsklinikum Vogelstang, Mannheim; Holger Lawall, Gemeinschaft- Carl Gustav Carus TU Dresden, Dresden; Veselin Mitrovic, spraxis Prof. Dr. med. Curt Diehm und Dr. med. Holger Kerckhoff-Klinik Forschungsgesellschaft mbH, Bad Lawall, Ettlingen; Sabine Genth-Zotz, Katholisches Klini- Nauheim; Wolfram Oettler, Praxis für Gefäßmedizin, kum Mainz, Caritas Werk St. Martin Gem. Träger und Görlitz; Claudia Zemmrich, MVZ Dres. Ramdohr - Betriebsf. GmbH, Mainz; Peter Wirtz, Kreiskrankenhaus Praxis für Cardiovascular und Ultraschalldiagnostik, Mechernich GmbH, Mechernich; Dirk Henning Walter, Berlin; Jaswant Singh, St. Elisabeth-Krankenhaus, Jülich; Kardiologie am Tibarg, Hamburg; Astrid Schmidt- Matthias Leschke, Klinikum Esslingen GmbH, Esslingen a. Reinwald, Praxis Dr. med. Astrid Schmidt-Reinwald, Trier N.; Thomas Herrmann, Fachinternistische Gemeinschaft- spraxis Weinheim, Weinheim; Stefan Hetzel, Gemeinschaft- Ireland spraxis Dres. Hetzel & Grewe-Kemper, Greven; Frank Brian McCullagh, Mater Private Hospital, Dublin; Mike Hamann, Klinikum Konstanz, Konstanz; Christina Hart, Watts, University Hospital Limerick, Limerick; Azhar Bhatti, Universitätsklinikum Regensburg, Regensburg; Matthias Connolly Hospital, Dublin; Peter Branagan, Beaumont Tenholt, Theresienkrankenhaus und St. Hedwig-Klinik Hospital,Dublin; Stuart Carr, Blackrock Clinic, Dublin GmbH, Mannheim; Martin Andrassy, Fürst-Stirum-Klinik Bruchsal, Bruchsal; Andreas Wilke, Kardiologische Praxis Italy Papenburg Dr. Hans-Jürgen Stühn-Pfeifer und Dr. Andreas Michele Dalla Vestra, Ospedale dell’Angelo, Mestre; Wilke, Papenburg; Friederike Baron-Gielnik, CardioMed an Crisitiano Bortoluzzi, Ospedale civile SS. Giovanni e der Alster, Hamburg; Muwafeg Abdel-Qader, Praxis Dr. Paolo, Venezia; David Imberti, Presidio Ospedaliero di med. Abdel-Qader, Winsen; Rainer Hennecke, Dres. Rolf Piacenza Ospedale “Guglielmo Da Saliceto”, Piacenza; Schenk und Rainer Hennecke, Winsen; Birgit Gerecke, Domenico Prisco, Azienda Ospedaliera Universitaria MVZ Ambulantes Kardiologisches Zentrum Peine, Peine; Careggi, Firenze; Serena Rupoli, Azienda Ospedaliero Uwe Gremmler, MVZ Ambulantes Kardiologisches Universitaria Ospedali Riuniti di Ancona "Umberto I, Zentrum Peine, Peine; Volker Eissing, MVZ Birkenallee G.M. Lancisi, G. Salesi", Ancona; Maria Amitrano, GmbH, Papenburg; Nikolaos Proskynitopoulos, Kardiolo- Azienda Ospedaliera San Giuseppe Moscati, Avellino; gische Gemeinschaftspraxis, Nienburg; Stefan Regner, Crisitiana D’Amrosio, Ospedale Ferdinando Veneziale, Cohen et al. Thrombosis Journal (2018) 16:9 Page 11 of 13 Isernia; Angelo Ghirarduzzi, Azienda Ospedaliera Avezzano; Jeness Simona Campodonico, Centro Arcispedale Santa Maria Nuova - IRCCS, Reggio Emilia; Cardiologico Monzino, Milano; Franco Spangaro, Giovanni Di Minno, Azienda Ospedaliera Universitaria Ospedale Cattinara, Trieste Federico II, Napoli; Andrea Fontanella, Ospedale Buon- consiglio - Fondazione Fatebenefratelli, Napoli; Maria Netherlands Teresa De Denato, Azienda Ospedaliera Universitaria S. Michiel Coppens, Academisch Medisch Centrum, Giovanni di Dio - Ruggi D’Aragona, Salerno; Sophie Testa, Amsterdam; Albert Mairuhu, HagaZiekenhuis, Den Haag; ASST di Cremona - Ospedale di Cremona, Cremona; Wim Boersma, Noordwest Ziekenhuisgroep, Alkmaar; Lorenzo Malatino, Azienda Ospedaliera per l’emergenza Marije ten Wolde, Flevoziekenhuis, Almere; Houshang “Canizzaro”, Catania; Francesca Corsini, Ospedale Monajemi, Rijnstate, Arnhem; Heike Noordzij-Nooteboom, Sant’Andrea, La Spezia; Rodolfo Tassara, Presidio Van Weel-Bethesda Ziekenhuis, Dirksland; Gert-Jan Ospedaliero di Savona - Cairo Montenotte Ospedale Braunstahl, Franciscus Gasthuis, Rotterdam; Ragnar San Paolo, Savona; Gabriele Giordano, Villa dei Fiori Lunde, Laurentius Ziekenhuis, Roermond; Sanne van -Casa dicuraprivata,Acerra; AnitaCarlizza, Wissen, Onze Lieve Vrouwe Gasthuis, Locatie Oost, Azienda Ospedaliera San Giovanni Addolorata, Roma; Amsterdam; Adriaan Dees, Ikazia Ziekenhuis, Rotterdam Riccardo Margheriti, Presidio Ospedaliero Giovan Battista Grassi, Roma; Fausto Marrocco, Presidio Ospedaliero Santa Scolastica, Cassino; Raffaele Landolfi, Fondazione Switzerland Policlinico Universitaria “A.Gemelli”, Roma; Sabina Marc Righini, Hopital Universitaire Geneve, Geneva; Villalta, Ospedale di Treviso, Treviso; Adriana Visona, Lucia Mazzolai, Centre Hospitalier Universitaire Vaudois, Presidio Ospedaliero San Giacomo Apostolo, Castelfranco Lausanne; Frederic Baumann, Universitaetsspital Zuerich, Veneto; Egidio Imbalzano, Azienda Ospedaliera Universitaria Zuerich; Marc Schindewolf, University of Bern, Bern; Policlinico “G. Martino”, Messina; Maurilio Cirrito, Daniel Staub, Universitaetsspital Basel, Basel; Juerg H. Fondazione Istituto “G. Giglio”, Cefalù; Massimo Beer, Kantonsspital Baden AG, Baden; Martin Banyai, Arquati, Presidio Ospedaliero Sacco, Milano; Giampiero Cantonal hospital Lucerne, Luzern; Stefan Kradolfer, Avruscio, Azienda Ospedaliera di Padova - Policlinico, Facharzt FMH ALLG. Medizin, Basel; Daniel Erni, Padova; Ginacarlo Agnelli, Azienda Ospedaliera di Perugia, Schwanenpraxis, Luzern Perugia; Lucia Anna Mameli, Ospedale Civile SS Annun- ziata A.S.L.1 Sassari, Sassari; Armando D’Angelo, Ospedale San Raffaele IRCCS, Milano; Roberta Risso, Ospedale Santo United Kingdom Spirito di Bra, Cuneo; Alessandro Celi, Azienda Ospedaliera Karen Breen, Guy’s Hospital, London; Ewart Jackson- Universitaria Pisana - Ospedale di Cisanello, Pisa; Vieri Voyzey, Axbridge and Wedmore Medical Practice, Vannucchi, Presidio Ospedaliero Santa Maria Nuova, Axbridge; Piers Clifford, Wycombe Hospital, High Firenze; Fernando Parente, Ospedale Vito Fazzi, Lecce; Wycombe; Peter MacCallum, Barts Health NHS Francesco Ventrella, Presidio Ospedaliero G. Tatarella, Trust, London; Azhar Zafar, Danes Camp Medical Cerignola; Francesco Dentali, Ospedale di Circolo e Practice, Northampton; Anja Drebes, Royal Free Fondazione Macchi, Varese; Pietro Tropeano, Ospedale London NHS Foundation Trust, London; Asok Santa Maria degli Angeli, Pordenone; Pasquale Morella, Venkataraman, George Eliot Hospital, Nuneaton; Azienda Ospedaliera A. CARDARELLI, Napoli; Aldo Salvi, Gunaratnam Gunathilagan, Queen Elizabeth the Ospedali Riuniti Ancona, Ancona; Gabriele Frausini, Queen Mother Hospital, Margate; Salah Matti, Azienda Ospedaliera MARCHE NORD Presidio Ospedaliero Basingstoke and North Hampshire Hospital, Basing- Santa Croce, Fano; Roberto Catalini, Ospedale Generale stoke; Nicola Stevenson, Arrowe Park Hospital, Provinciale, Macerata; Mauro Campanini, Azienda Wirral; Tamara Everington, Salisbury District Hospital, Ospedaliera Universitaria Maggiore della Carità, Novara; Salisbury; JamesUprichard,StGeorge’sHospital, London; Corrado Amato, Policlinico Universitario Palermo, Palermo; Anand Dixit, Royal Victoria Infirmary, Newcastle upon Monica Demarco, Humanitas Mater Domini, Castellanza; Tyne; Piers Clifford, Hammersmith Hospital, London; Iolanda Enea, Ospedale S. Anna e S. Sebastiano, Caserta; Tina Dutt, Royal Liverpool University Hospital, Liverpool; Nello Zanatta, Ospedale S. Maria dei Battuti, Conegliano Jeremy Platt, The Binfield Surgery, Binfield; Mark Veneto; Rita Pepe, Ospedale S. Eugenio, Roma; Roberto Richardson, Lindum Medical Practice, Lincoln; Paul Cappelli, Azienda Ospedaliera Universitaria Senese, Siena; Gilbert Conn, Ballygomartin Group Practice, Belfast; Stefano Barolo, Ospedale S. Lazzaro, Alba; Giuseppe Charalampos Kartsios, Birmingham Heartlands Hospital, Guigliano, Azienda Ospedaliera Universitaria Federico II, Birmingham; Muhsin Almusawy, Bedford Hospital, Napoli; Beilde Cosmi, Ospedale Sant’Orsola - Malpighi, Bedford; Margaret Bowers, Ulster Hospital South Eastern Bologna; Domenic Blasis, Ospedale SS Filippo e Nicola, Health and Social Care Trust, Belfast. Cohen et al. Thrombosis Journal (2018) 16:9 Page 12 of 13 Abbreviations Sankyo, Eli Lilly, EOS, GSK, Janssen, MSD, Mundipharma, Novartis, Pfizer, ADR: Adverse drug reaction; BE/NL: BELGIUM/the Netherlands; CI: Confidence Roche, Shire, Vertex. interval; CRNM: Clinically relevant non-major bleeding; DACH: Austria, Switzerland Julio Lopez Bastida received honoraria from Daiichi Sankyo. and Germany; DOAC: Direct oral anticoagulant; DVT: Deep vein thrombosis; Petra Laeis, Eva-Maria Fronk, Wolfgang Zierhut, and Thomas Malzer are employees eCRF: Electronic case report form; EDC: Electronic data capture; EMA: European of Daiichi Sankyo Europe GmbH. Medicines Agency; GPP: Good Pharmacoepidemiology Practice; GVP: Good Peter Bramlage received research funding and consultancy honoraria from Pharmacovigilance Practices; LPO: Last patient out; NVAF: Non-valvular atrial Daiichi Sankyo Europe GmbH. He further received funding for drafting the fibrillation; PASS: Post-authorisation safety study; PE: Pulmonary embolism; manuscript. PTS: Post-thrombotic syndrome; SEE: Systemic embolic events; UK/IE: United The members of the Steering Committee received honoraria and travel Kingdom/Ireland; VTE: Venous thromboembolism reimbursements from Daiichi Sankyo Europe GmbH for their participation in Steering Committee Meetings. Acknowledgements We are indebted to all investigators across Austria, Germany, Belgium, Italy, Switzerland, the Netherlands and the UK who have made this registry Publisher’sNote possible. See Appendix for list of Investigators. Springer Nature remains neutral with regard to jurisdictional claims in published maps and institutional affiliations. Funding Daiichi Sankyo Europe GmbH, Munich, Germany. Author details Guy’s and St Thomas’ NHS Foundation Trust, King’s College London, Availability of data and materials London, UK. Clinical Division of Haematology and Haemostaseology, Not applicable. Department of Medicine I, Medical University of Vienna, Vienna, Austria. Department of General Internal Medicine, Cliniques Universitaires Saint Luc, UCL, Bruxelles, Belgium. Centre Hospitalier Universitaire de Saint-Etienne, Authors’ contributions Saint-Priest En Jarez, France. Division of Angiology, Medical Clinic IV, All authors have contributed to the design of the registry and/or the preparation of University Hospital, Ludwig-Maximilians-University, Munich, Germany. the manuscript. EMF was responsible for the analysis of data. ATC and PB drafted National Pulmonary Hypertension Unit, Mater Misericordiae University the first version of the manuscript and the remaining authors made substantial Hospital, Dublin, Ireland. Department of Vascular Medicine, Academic revisions to the manuscript. All authors have approved the version to be published. Medical Center, Amsterdam, The Netherlands. Department of Internal Apart from the selection of the countries, all design aspects were decided by the Medicine, Arterial Investigation Unit, Hospital de Santa Marta, Lisbon, scientific Steering Committee and executed by independent Contract Research Portugal. Respiratory Department, Ramón y Cajal Hospital, Madrid, Spain. organizations. All authors read and approved the final manuscript. Division of Angiology, University Hospital Zurich, Zurich, Switzerland. Institute for Health Economics, Steinbeis-University, Berlin, Germany. Ethics approval and consent to participate 12 13 LEGOS, Université Paris – Dauphine, Paris, France. University of Castilla-La Approval from the responsible ethics committees and institutional review Mancha, Talavera de la Reina, Toledo, Spain. Department of Medicine, boards will be obtained prior to protocol implementation. Informed consent Université Paris Descartes, Paris, France. Daiichi Sankyo Europe GmbH, will be obtained from all patients prior to enrolment and compliance with Munich, Germany. Institute for Pharmacology and Preventive Medicine, the Declaration of Helsinki will be ensured throughout the study. Berlin, Germany. Internal and Cardiovascular Medicine-Stroke Unit, University of Perugia, Perugia, Italy. Consent for publication Not applicable. Received: 16 December 2017 Accepted: 6 February 2018 Competing interests The members of the Steering Committee received honoraria for their advice in the planning of the Registry. They also received honoraria and travel reimbursements References from Daiichi Sankyo Europe GmbH for their participation in Steering Committee 1. Heit JA. Epidemiology of venous thromboembolism. Nat Rev Cardiol. 2015; Meetings. 12:464–74. Alexander T. Cohen, Hervé Décousus, Pedro Marques da Silva, David Jimenez 2. Goldhaber SZ, Bounameaux H. Pulmonary embolism and deep vein Castro, Beatrice Amann-Vesti, Bernd Brüggenjürgen, Eric Vicaut and Giancarlo thrombosis. Lancet. 2012;379:1835–46. Agnelli have received research support and/or honoraria for lectures from a 3. Cushman M, Tsai AW, White RH, Heckbert SR, Rosamond WD, Enright P, number of pharmaceutical companies including Daiichi Sankyo, the sponsor Folsom AR. Deep vein thrombosis and pulmonary embolism in two cohorts: of the registry. the longitudinal investigation of thromboembolism etiology. Am J Med. Cihan Ay received honoraria for lectures from Sanofi, Pfizer/BMS, Daiichi- 2004;117:19–25. Sankyo, Boehringer Ingelheim, and Bayer. Advisory board membership for 4. Heit JA. Predicting the risk of venous thromboembolism recurrence. Am J Pfizer/BMS, Daiichi-Sankyo, Boehringer Ingelheim, and Bayer. Hematol. 2012;87(Suppl 1):S63–7. Philippe Hainaut received honoraria from Daiichi Sankyo Europe GmbH for 5. Giugliano RP, Ruff CT, Braunwald E, Murphy SA, Wiviott SD, Halperin JL, lectures and advisory board membership. Waldo AL, Ezekowitz MD, Weitz JI, Špinar J, et al. Edoxaban versus warfarin Ulrich Hoffmann received honoraria for lectures from Bayer, Daiichi-Sankyo, in patients with atrial fibrillation. N Engl J Med. 2013;369:2093–104. Leo Pharma, Pfizer, Bristol-Meyers, Aspen, Sanofi-Aventis, Amgen. Advisory 6. Buller HR, Decousus H, Grosso MA, Mercuri M, Middeldorp S, Prins MH, board membership for Bayer, Daiichi-Sankyo, Leo Pharma, Sanofi-Aventis, Raskob GE, Schellong SM, Schwocho L, Segers A, et al. Edoxaban versus and Amgen. warfarin for the treatment of symptomatic venous thromboembolism. N Sean Gaine received honoraria for lectures from Actelion Pharmaceuticals Engl J Med. 2013;369:1406–15. Ltd., Bayer, GlaxoSmithKline, Merck Sharpe & Dohme, and has received 7. Lixiana (edoxaban): Summary of Product Characteristics [http://www.ema. advisory and/or drug safety board fees from Astra Zeneca, Actelion europa.eu/docs/en_GB/document_library/EPAR_-_Product_Information/ Pharmaceuticals Ltd., Bayer, GlaxoSmithKline, Novartis, Pfizer and Daiichi- human/002629/WC500189045.pdf]. Accessed 2017. Sankyo, Menerini, and United Therapeutics. 8. Konstantinides SV, Torbicki A, Agnelli G, Danchin N, Fitzmaurice D, Galie N, Michiel Coppens has received research funding and honoraria for Gibbs JS, Huisman MV, Humbert M, Kucher N, et al: 2014 ESC guidelines on consultancy or lecturing from Daiichi Sankyo, Boehringer Ingelheim, Bayer, the diagnosis and management of acute pulmonary embolism. Eur Heart J Bristol-Myers Squibb and Pfizer. 2014, 35:3033–3069, 3069a-3069k. Pierre Levy received honoraria for lectures from AbbVie, Amgen, Gilead, GSK, 9. Summary of the risk management plan (RMP) for Lixiana (edoxaban) [http:// Novo Nordisk, ViiV. Advisory board membership for AbbVie, Actelion, www.ema.europa.eu/docs/en_GB/document_library/EPAR_-_Risk-managem Amgen, Astellas, Bayer, Biogen, Boehringer Ingelheim, Celgène, Daiichi ent-plan_summary/human/002629/WC500186050.pdf]. Accessed 2017. Cohen et al. Thrombosis Journal (2018) 16:9 Page 13 of 13 10. Edoxaban Treatment in Routine Clinical Practice for Patients With Non Valvular Atrial Fibrillation (ETNA-AF-EU: NCT02944019) [https://clinicaltrials. gov/ct2/show/NCT02944019]. Accessed 2017. 11. Schulman S, Kearon C, the SOCOAOTS, Standardization Committee Of The International Society On T, Haemostasis. Definition of major bleeding in clinical investigations of antihemostatic medicinal products in non-surgical patients. J Thromb Haemost. 2005;3:692–4. 12. Investigators TH-V. Edoxaban versus warfarin for the treatment of symptomatic venous thromboembolism. N Engl J Med. 2013;369:1406–15. 13. Cohen AT, Gitt AK, Bauersachs R, Fronk EM, Laeis P, Mismetti P, Monreal M, Willich SN, Bramlage P, Agnelli G, et al. The management of acute venous thromboembolism in clinical practice. Results from the European PREFER in VTE registry. Thromb Haemost. 2017;117:1326–37. 14. Agnelli G, Gitt AK, Bauersachs R, Fronk EM, Laeis P, Mismetti P, Monreal M, Willich SN, Wolf WP, Cohen AT. The management of acute venous thromboembolism in clinical practice - study rationale and protocol of the European PREFER in VTE registry. Thromb J. 2015;13:41. 15. Raskob G, Buller H, Prins M, Segers A, Shi M, Schwocho L, van Kranen R, Mercuri M. Edoxaban for the long-term treatment of venous thromboembolism: rationale and design of the Hokusai-venous thromboembolism study–methodological implications for clinical trials. J Thromb Haemost. 2013;11:1287–94. 16. Guideline on good pharmacovigilance practices (GVP) Module VI – Management and reporting of adverse reactions to medicinal products (Rev 1) [http://www.ema.europa.eu/docs/en_GB/document_library/Scientific_ guideline/2014/09/WC500172402.pdf]. Accessed 2017. 17. Public Policy Committee ISoP. Guidelines for good pharmacoepidemiology practice (GPP). Pharmacoepidemiol Drug Saf. 2016;25:2–10. 18. Verso M, Agnelli G, Ageno W, Imberti D, Moia M, Palareti G, Pistelli R, Cantone V. Long-term death and recurrence in patients with acute venous thromboembolism: the MASTER registry. Thromb Res. 2012;130:369–73. 19. Spirk D, Ugi J, Korte W, Husmann M, Hayoz D, Baldi T, Frauchiger B, Banyai M, Aujesky D, Baumgartner I, Kucher N. Long-term anticoagulation treatment for acute venous thromboembolism in patients with and without cancer. The SWIss venous ThromboEmbolism registry (SWIVTER) II. Thromb Haemost. 2011;105:962–7. 20. Weitz JI, Haas S, Ageno W, Angchaisuksiri P, Bounameaux H, Nielsen JD, Goldhaber SZ, Goto S, Kayani G, Mantovani L, et al. Global anticoagulant registry in the field - venous thromboembolism (GARFIELD-VTE). Rationale and design. Thromb Haemost. 2016;116:1172–9. 21. Monreal M, Suarez C, Fajardo JA, Barba R, Uresandi F, Valle R, Rondon P. Management of patients with acute venous thromboembolism: findings from the RIETE registry. Pathophysiol Haemost Thromb. 2003;33:330–4. 22. Ageno W, Mantovani LG, Haas S, Kreutz R, Monje D, Schneider J, van Eickels M, Gebel M, Zell E, Turpie AG. Safety and effectiveness of oral rivaroxaban versus standard anticoagulation for the treatment of symptomatic deep- vein thrombosis (XALIA): an international, prospective, non-interventional study. Lancet Haematol. 2016;3:e12–21. 23. Ageno W, Casella IB, Han CK, Raskob GE, Schellong S, Schulman S, Singer DE, Kimura K, Tang W, Desch M, Goldhaber SZ, RE-COVERY DVT. PE: rationale and design of a prospective observational study of acute venous thromboembolism with a focus on dabigatran etexilate. Thromb Haemost. 2017;117:415–21. 24. Ageno W, Mantovani LG, Haas S, Kreutz R, Haupt V, Schneider J, Turpie AG. XALIA: rationale and design of a non-interventional study of rivaroxaban compared with standard therapy for initial and long-term anticoagulation in deep vein thrombosis. Thromb J. 2014;12:16. 25. About GARFIELD-VTE [http://vte.garfieldregistry.org/about/about-garfield-vte]. Submit your next manuscript to BioMed Central Accessed 2017. and we will help you at every step: 26. RE-COVERY DVT/PE: Global Study on Treatment Secondary Prevention of Acute Venous Thromboembolism. https://clinicaltrials.gov/ct2/show/ • We accept pre-submission inquiries NCT02596230. � Our selector tool helps you to find the most relevant journal � We provide round the clock customer support � Convenient online submission � Thorough peer review � Inclusion in PubMed and all major indexing services � Maximum visibility for your research Submit your manuscript at www.biomedcentral.com/submit

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Thrombosis JournalSpringer Journals

Published: May 1, 2018

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