Refractories and Industrial Ceramics Vol. 48, No. 6, 2007 DEPENDENCE OF THE SERVICE PROPERTIES OF CARBON-BEARING MATERIALS ON THE PROCESSES OF SPINEL FORMATION THAT OCCUR IN THE STRUCTURE OF REFRACTORY IN SERVICE 1 1 1 I. D. Kashcheev, L. V. Serova, and E. V. Chudinova Translated from Novye Ogneupory, No. 12, p. 65, December, 2007. The process of steel making requires the use of MgO·Al O spinel. Powdered metallic aluminum (for example, 2 3 refractories that can withstand the aggressiveness of slag and PAP-2 aluminum dust) introduced into the charge does not metal and durable residence of metal in the teeming ladle. oxidize fully under the given conditions, remains inside the The refractories wear due to impregnation with metal and articles in an unreacted condition until 800 – 1000°C, and slag, chemical interaction, mechanical wear, and heat shocks. serves as a source spinel formation. The reaction can occur at Producers and consumers of refractories face the problem of a temperature exceeding 800°C, and spinel can form both on predicting their properties depending on the conditions of the surface and inside the articles. In addition, the reaction steel making and creating what are known as combined lin- resists growth in the open porosity in the articles, which ap- ings. In combined linings refractories with specified quality pears due to removal of the volatile components of the pitch parameters are used in different zones with allowance for the during oxidation of carbon and reduction of MgO. process used for steel making and for the processes that Thus, the producers have to choose materials that acce- occur in the refractory material in operation. In order to form lerate the process of spinel formation and ensure formation a strong carbon skeleton in a refractory material it is neces- of a strong carbon-bearing skeleton. It should be noted that sary to use a complex carbon-constituting system that usu- spinel continues to form at a higher temperature, which is ally consists of a combination of carbon-bearing materials, confirmed by the change in the sizes of the articles at a tem- i.e., natural graphite, artificial carbon-bearing materials perature exceeding 1200°C. having a tendency to be less oriented during pressing, and As a result of checking of the quality parameters of high-temperature pitch. The antioxidant in periclase-carbon periclase-carbon articles of various producers after heating to refractories is a metal, most frequently metallic aluminum. 1000°C in an inert medium it has been established that the Initially, the idea to use metallic aluminum was based on the ultimate compressive strength of the articles decreases on the fact that a metal possessing a higher tendency to oxidation average by 50% and the open porosity increases by 70%. should promote preservation of the carbon phase. However, The quality parameters of articles, the charge for which has the results of numerous tests in a range of 700 – 1600°C been developed with the use of spinel formation, remain vir- show that the formation of Al2O3 is accompanied by the ap- tually unchanged; in some cases their ultimate compressive pearance of new phases such as the Al C carbide and the strength increases by 20%. When spinel-carbon articles are 4 3 used, the change in the quality parameters is the same as in Nizhny Tagil Iron and Steel Works JSC, Russia. periclase-carbon ones. 1083-4877074806-0446 © 2007 Springer Science+Business Media, Inc.
Refractories and Industrial Ceramics – Springer Journals
Published: Jul 3, 2008
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