ISSN 1070-4272, Russian Journal of Applied Chemistry, 2014, Vol. 87, No. 2, pp. 135−140. © Pleiades Publishing, Ltd., 2014.
Original Russian Text © A.A. Ivanov, V.V. Botvin, A.G. Filimoshkin, 2014, published in Zhurnal Prikladnoi Khimii, 2014, Vol. 87, No. 2, pp. 151−157.
INORGANIC SYNTHESIS AND INDUSTRIAL
Modern branches of technology, and primarily the
industry of light-emitting diodes and microelectronics,
are developed on the basis of polyfunctional materials,
with the principal role frequently played by inorganic
polymeric composites. A new area of research in the
physical chemistry of macromolecular compounds has
been evolving in the ﬁ eld of fundamental science and vari-
ous technologies. It is associated with synthesis and stud-
ies of the structure and properties of 3D superbranched
polymers and oligomers, the so-called dendrimers .
Polymers with this morphology of macromolecular en-
sembles of both organic and inorganic compounds attract
researchers’ attention because the number of branches
increases exponentially with each chain-growth event in
the course of synthesis of 3D macromolecular ensembles.
As a result, both the size and shape of macromolecules
change, which is accompanied by a profound modiﬁ cation
of their physical and physicochemical properties, such as
viscosity, solubility, moisture absorption, density, etc.
Some synthetic approaches can produce regular den-
drimer ensembles (DEs) whose macromolecules have
a rather well-deﬁ ned molecular weight. It should be
noted, in addition, that many physical and physicochemi-
cal properties of dendrimer materials, e.g., their glass
transition temperature, mostly depend on the chemical
nature of terminal groups situated on the surface of spheri-
cal “macromolecules-dandelions” of this kind.
All the aforesaid arouses chemists’ interest in syn-
theses of dendrimer macromolecules. For example, den-
drimers based on polyethers and polyesters, polyamides,
polyphenylenes, polysiloxanes, polycarbosilanes, etc.
have been synthesized and described in the literature
. Combining the controlled synthesis of dendrimer
polyaluminosilicates (PASs) with the stage of techno-
logical molding of articles (e.g., formation of coatings
on a substrate with a developed surface) is an original
and economically advantageous procedure that imparts
required properties to ceramic composites.
The dimensional, phase, structural, and other
morphological characteristics responsible for the
physicomechanical, physicochemical, and service
properties of ﬁ nished coatings are set already in the course
of PAS synthesis. Use of classical methods for synthesis
of nanostructured ceramic materials with a required
stoichiometry, homogeneity, high purity, and certain
micro- and supramolecular properties fails to always yield
desired results [3, 4].
The goal of the present study was to develop a method
for synthesis of amorphous PASs whose macromolecules
have the form of branched dendrimer ensembles that can
accommodate up to 70% ﬁ ller nanoparticles (aluminum
oxide or nitride, zirconium dioxide, etc.) and form the
so-called ﬁ lled polyaluminosilicates (FPASs) whose
Dendrimer Polyaluminosilicates as a Matrix for Filled Coatings
A. A. Ivanov, V. V. Botvin, and A. G. Filimoshkin
National Research Tomsk State University, Tomsk, pr. Lenina 36, Tomsk, 634050 Russia
Received February 13, 2014
Abstract—Sol-gel synthesis of ﬁ lled polyaluminosilicates with macromolecules having a dendrimer morphology
≈ 480 000) was developed. The software package Gaussian B3LYP/6-31G(d) was used to assess the possible
mechanism by which nuclei of dendrimer molecules are created, with the subsequent generation of crowns of
branched ensembles capable of accommodating up to 70 wt % nano-Al
as a ﬁ ller. The data furnished by
transmission electron microscopy of the samples are in agreement with the suggested mechanism of generation
and growth of dendrimers. The main results were obtained on ﬁ lled aluminosilicate samples that contain 70 wt %
and exhibit a high wear resistance in tribological tests.