Published data and the results of the authors’ own studies on the role of intracellular proteolytic enzymes and the metabolic and signaling processes regulated by these enzymes at certain stages of growth and development of salmonid fishes are analyzed in the present review. The major pathways of intracellular proteolysis relying on autophagy, proteasome activity, and calpain activity are considered, as well as the relative contribution of these pathways to proteolysis in skeletal muscle of the fish. Skeletal muscle accounts for more than half of the weight of the fish and undergoes the most significant changes due to the action of anabolic and catabolic signals. Special attention is paid to the intensity of protein degradation during the active growth period characterized by a high rate of protein synthesis and metabolism in fish, as well as to protein degradation during the reproductive period characterized by predomination of catabolic processes in contrast to the growth period. Skeletal muscle plays a unique role as a source of plastic and energy substrates in fish, and, therefore, the process of muscle protein degradation is regarded as a key mechanism for the regulation of growth intensity in juvenile salmon and for maintenance of viability and reproductive capacity of salmonid fish during the maturation of gametes, starvation, and migration related to spawning. The possibility of using a set of parameters of intracellular proteolysis to characterize the early development of salmonids is demonstrated in the review.
Russian Journal of Developmental Biology – Springer Journals
Published: Jul 23, 2016
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