Russian Journal of Applied Chemistry, 2009, Vol. 82, No. 8, pp. 1472−1478.
Pleiades Publishing, Ltd., 2009.
Original Russian Text
N.R. Ponomareva, G.P. Goncharuk, Yu.A. Grigor’ev, E.S. Obolonkova, O.A. Serenko, 2009, published in Zhurnal Prikladnoi
Khimii, 2009, Vol. 82, No. 8, pp. 1373−1379.
AND POLYMERIC MATERIALS
Deformation Behavior of Composites Based on Low-Density
Polyethylene and Hollow Glass Spheres
N. R. Ponomareva
, G. P. Goncharuk
, Yu. A. Grigor’ev
, E. S. Obolonkova
, and O. A. Serenko
Moscow Pedagogical State University, Moscow, Russia
Enikolopov Institute of Synthetic Polymeric Materials, Russian Academy of Sciences, Moscow, Russia
Received March 30, 2009
Abstract—The mechanical properties of composites of low-density polyethylene with hard particles were
Two major steps can be distinguished in studies of
composites ﬁ lled with ﬁ nely dispersed materials. The
ﬁ rst step is associated with studies of ﬁ lled rubbers.
Experimental studies showed that the mechanical
characteristics (strength and relative elongation at break)
of elastic composites with a hard inactive filler are
determined by the properties and content of the matrix
polymer and monotonically decrease with an increase in
its concentration . The second step is associated with
studies of composites based on plastic polymers with
hard particles. In these materials, transition from plastic
strain to brittle fracture (embrittlement) frequently occurs
at low degrees of ﬁ lling [2, 3]. A change in the character
of fracture is accompanied by a drastic decrease in the
relative elongation at break: from 400–800 to 10–20%.
The use of thermoplastics with a high elongation at break
and improvement of the quality of polymer mixing with
the ﬁ ller do not allow the embrittlement to be avoided.
According to the assumptions made in [3, 4],
embrittlement of composites is associated with necking
of the polymer matrix. At a deﬁ nite degree of ﬁ lling, the
composite fails when a neck is formed. At this kind of
fracture, the relative elongation of the material is low.
Separate published data indicate that the concentration
interval of the plastic behavior of a composite is
determined by the capability of the matrix polymer for
deformation strengthening, rather than by its elongation
at break . In some cases, polymer filling is not
accompanied by embrittlement. The material can remain
plastic in a wide range of the degrees of ﬁ lling, despite
necking in the matrix polymer [5, 6].
Bazhenov et al. [4, 7] developed a general approach to
determination of the deformation behavior of composites
based on plastic polymers ﬁ lled with dispersed materials.
Theoretical concepts of possible changes in the
deformation behavior of composites were experimentally
conﬁ rmed in studies of composites based on thermoplastic
polymers and elastic particles (rubber-ﬁ lled plastics) [8,
9]. According to the results of [10, 11], elastic particles
deform together with the matrix polymer. This fact may
inﬂ uence the fracture mode of the composites.
The goal of this study was to examine mechanical
properties of composites of low-density polyethylene
(PE) with hard particles and to assess the applicability
of the previously developed approaches to description
of the deformation behavior of materials with hard ﬁ ller
We used low-density polyethylene (LDPE) of grade
15803-020 with the melt ﬂ ow index of 2 g/10 min at a load
of 2.16 kg and temperature of 190°С. As ﬁ ller we used
hollow undressed glass spheres with the particle size from
10 to 90 μm (Vibrotekh-tsentr Limited Liability Company,
Moscow, Russia). The absence of dressing on the particle
surface was determined by IR spectroscopy.
The polymer was mixed with the ﬁ ller in a Brabender
micromixer at 160°C for 10 min at a rotor rotation rate