The total area of debris flow territories of the Russian Federation accounts for about 10% of the area of the country. The highest debris flow activity areas located in Kamchatka-Kuril, North Caucasus and Baikal debris flow provinces. The largest debris flow events connected with volcano eruptions. Maximum volume of debris flow deposits per one event reached 500 × 106 m3 (lahar formed during the eruption of Bezymyanny volcano in Kamchatka in 1956). In the mountains of the Greater Caucasus, the maximum volume of transported debris material reached 3 × 106 m3; the largest debris flows here had glacial reasons. In the Baikal debris flow province, the highest debris flow activity located in the ridges of the Baikal rift zone (the East Sayan Mountains, the Khamar-Daban Ridge and the ridges of the Stanovoye Highland). Spatial features of debris flow processes within the territory of Russia are analyzed, and the map of Debris Flow Hazard in Russia is presented. We classified the debris flow hazard areas into 2 zones, 6 regions and 15 provinces. Warm and cold zones are distinguished. The warm zone covers mountainous areas within the southern part of Russia with temperate climate; rain-induced debris flows are predominant there. The cold zone includes mountainous areas with subarctic and arctic climate; they are characterized by a short warm period, the occurrence of permafrost, as well as the predominance of slush flows. Debris flow events are described for each province. We collected a list of remarkable debris flow events with some parameters of their magnitude and impact. Due to climate change, the characteristics of debris flows will change in the future. Availability of maps and information from previous events will allow to analyze the new cases of debris flows.
Natural Hazards – Springer Journals
Published: Mar 29, 2017
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