ISSN 1070-4272, Russian Journal of Applied Chemistry, 2008, Vol. 81, No. 1, pp. 46 !51. + Pleiades Publishing, Ltd., 2008.
Original Russian Text + S.M. Rustamov, F.T. Makhmudov, 2008, published in Zhurnal Prikladnoi Khimii, 2008, Vol. 81, No. 1, pp. 50 !55.
OF SYSTEMS AND PROCESSES
Dealuminated Zeolites in Sorption Treatment
of Industrial Liquid Wastes to Remove Alkylbenzenesulfonates
S. M. Rustamov and F. T. Makhmudov
Institute of Chemical Problems, National Academy of Sciences of Azerbaijan, Baku, Azerbaijan
Received September 30, 2006; in final form, March 2007
Abstract-Comparative study of the fundamental aspects of the kinetics and statics (equilibrium) of sorption
of alkylbenzenesulfonates from aqueous solutions and liquid wastes on industrial AV-17-OH and KAD-iodine
sorbents and deeply dealuminated synthetic zeolites NaY and NaX was carried out. The kinetic curves and
adsorption isotherms obtained were processed using the classical equations of the diffusion kinetics and
the known Langmuir and Nikol’skii equations for equilibrium sorption processes.
It is known that ionic surfactants can be subdivided
into anionic, cationic, and ampholytic [1, 2]. Anionic
and cationic surfactants are most widely used in in-
dustry and households. In particular, alkylbenzenesul-
fonates (ABS) as representatives of anionic surfactants
serve as a basis for fabrication of foaming and wetting
agents and emulsifiers  and are used as detergents
under the trade mark Sulfonols. In contrast to linear
polymers, alkylbenzenesulfonates are rather toxic and,
when they find way into natural water basins together
with wastewater from various industries, they are
a hazard to the flora and fauna .
It is recommended to purify industrial wastewater
to remove ABS using, together with various physico-
chemical methods , sorption methods with solid
sorbents, which are efficient and provide deep puri-
fication of water in conformity with modern regula-
A sorption-based method for wastewater treatment
to remove surfactants of various classes with activated
carbons of various brands has been developed and
implemented in practice . A disadvantage of this
technique is that these processes use only a minor
fraction of the specific surface area of some of the
activated carbons tested (~25330%). Taking into
account this circumstance, we consider it appropriate
to use activated carbons for treatment of wastewater
containing low concentrations of surfactants or, in
some cases, for additional purification of wastewater
after another purification method.
Solid sorbents of the class of aluminosilicates (ben-
tonite and kaolinite clays, mixed aluminosilicate
sorbent, ash from oil shales) have been successfully
tested in sorption treatment of wastewater to remove
ABS [2, 437]. Although the clays used exhibit high
sorption activity with respect to ABS, their strong
swelling in aqueous media prevented their wide use in
wastewater treatment on sorption columns.
It is of interest to develop effective sorbents based
on natural and synthetic zeolites by modification of
their surface in order to remove alkylbenzenesulfo-
nates from liquid industrial wastes. It should be noted
that natural and synthetic zeolites have not been used
previously to remove alkylbenzenesulfonates from
liquid media because of their rigid framework and
narrow-pore structure and of the lack of swelling and
strong hydrophilicity in aqueous media.
Samples of natural zeolites (clinoptilolite and mor-
denite), modified with methylamine hydrochloride,
were used for treatment of liquid wastes to remove
toxic organochlorine compounds (dichloroethane, tri-
chloroethylene, chloroform), with high sorption
capacities obtained (12.0314.5 wt %) .
Here we report on a study of the sorption purifica-
tion of liquid industrial wastes to remove alkylben-
zenesulfonates with dealuminated zeolites and on
an analysis of the fundamental aspects of the kinetics
and statics (equilibrium) of the process.
To modify the surface by dealumination, we took
natural zeolites, clinoptilolite from the Ai-Dag deposit