Russian Journal of Applied Chemistry, 2011, Vol. 84, No. 1, pp. 95−102.
Pleiades Publishing, Ltd., 2011.
Original Russian Text © S.V. Budukva, O.V. Klimov, G.S. Litvak, Yu.A. Chesalov, I.P. Prosvirin, T.V. Larina, A.S. Noskov, 2011, published in Zhurnal
Prikladnoi Khimii, 2011, Vol. 84, No. 1, pp. 95−102.
AND INDUSTRIAL ORGANIC CHEMISTRY
Deactivation and Oxidative Regeneration of Modern Catalysts
for Deep Hydropuriﬁ cation of Diesel Fuel: Oxidative
Regeneration of IK-GO-1 Catalyst
S. V. Budukva, O. V. Klimov, G. S. Litvak, Yu. A. Chesalov,
I. P. Prosvirin, T. V. Larina, and A. S. Noskov
Boreskov Institute of Catalysis, Siberian Branch, Russian Academy of Sciences, Novosibirsk, Russia
Received January 21, 2010
Abstract—Oxidative regeneration of a deactivated IK-GO-1 catalyst was studied in removal of carbonaceous
deposits and sulfur from the catalyst composition. Elemental analysis data, texture characteristics, and catalytic
activities of fresh and regenerated samples were compared. Raman spectroscopy, X-ray phase analysis, electronic
diffuse reﬂ ectance spectroscopy, and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy were used to examine the structure of
cobalt and molybdenum compounds entering into the composition of the catalysts.
Previously, properties of an IK-GO-1 catalyst
deactivated on a laboratory installation have been
described and it was shown that its activity in
hydropuriﬁ cation of diesel fuel decreases because the
active component is blocked by carbonaceous deposits
. The characteristics of carbonaceous deposits
obtained in model deactivation (their amount, chemical
composition, particle size, layer thickness, apparent
density, localization in the catalyst) are typical of
hydropuriﬁ cation catalysts deactivated under industrial
conditions, described in the literature.
In the industry, hydropuriﬁ cation catalysts are mostly
regenerated by in-reactor burning-out of carbonaceous
deposits in a ﬂ ow of an oxygen-containing gas at
a temperature not exceeding 550°C [2–4]. To preclude
local overheatings caused by coke combustion, the
regeneration is performed either in inclined rotating
furnaces with an agitated catalyst bed or by transporting
a thin layer of the catalyst on a perforated band through
a tunnel furnace. As a rule, the hydropuriﬁ cation activity
of regenerated catalysts is markedly inferior to that of
fresh samples. In the case of a complete removal of
carbonaceous deposits, the following four main reasons
for the decrease in the activity of a regenerated catalyst,
compared with a fresh sample, can be distinguished
(1) Deposition on the catalyst surface of compounds
of metals that are brought with raw materials and cannot
be removed by calcination.
(2) Decrease in the content of active metals.
(3) Change in texture characteristics of the catalysts.
(4) Formation, in the course of regeneration, of
oxygen-containing compounds of molybdenum and
cobalt, which are not converted into an active component
of hydropuriﬁ cation reactions in further sulfation.
The goal of our study was to compare the activity of
catalysts regenerated in laboratory and under industrial
conditions with that of fresh samples.
We used an industrial catalyst for deep hydro-
puriﬁ cation of diesel fuel, IK-GO-1, manufactured by
Industrial Catalysts private company (Ryazan). We
examined four samples: no. 1, fresh IK-GO-1 catalyst;