In a long-term survey of black root rot of strawberries and raspberries in Northern Germany in 2007–2014, fungi with and without Cylindrocarpon-like anamorphs were isolated as potential pathogens. Dactylonectria torresensis was the most common species, being isolated from 18% of strawberry roots obtained from nursery plants and 37% of roots from production fields, as well as 21% and 29% (respectively) of raspberry roots. Less frequently isolated fungi with Cylindrocarpon-like anamorphs included Ilyonectria crassa, Ilyonectria sp. 2, I. pseudodestructans, I. robusta, C. obtusisporium and Ilyonectria sp. 1. Severe disease symptoms were reproduced by artificial inoculation of strawberries with D. torresensis, I. crassa and Ilyonectria sp. 2, milder symptoms with C. obtusisporium. A wide range of other root-pathogenic fungi such as Fusarium oxysporum, Verticillium dahliae, Ceratobasidium fragariae, Gnomoniopsis fructicola, Hainesia lythri, and species of Cadophora, Leptodontidium, Pythium, Phytophthora, Plectosporella, Pestalotiopsis and Truncatella were either isolated only sporadically or were not associated with black root rot symptoms, suggesting that they did not play any major role in this disease in Northern Germany. Visible disease symptoms and high frequencies of D. torresensis isolations in many batches of nursery plants indicated that these may comprise a major source of contamination of production fields. The previously unrecognised prominence of D. torresensis resolves a long-standing puzzle concerning the cause of the ongoing black root rot epidemic in Northern German strawberry and raspberry production.
Erwerbs-Obstbau – Springer Journals
Published: Jul 4, 2017
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