1062-3604/04/3501- © 2004
Russian Journal of Developmental Biology, Vol. 35, No. 1, 2004, pp. 28–31. Translated from Ontogenez, Vol. 35, No. 1, 2004, pp. 37–40.
Original Russian Text Copyright © 2004 by Pak.
The frequency of visible developmental defects
(Lerner, 1954; Rasmuson, 1960; Kirpichnikov, 1979),
frequency of chromosomal aberrations (Tsutsygina,
1980; Kaidanova, 1980; Il’inskikh
, 1992; Dmit-
riev and Zakharov, 2001), and ontogenetic noise
(Zakharov, 2001; Zakharov
, 2001) can be used as
the main indices for estimation of developmental stabil-
ity of the populations.
Lerner (1954) proposed the term “phenodeviants”
for visible developmental defects and deﬁned them as
congenital deviations varying in expression and fre-
quency and hardly accessible for genetic analysis.
The ontogenetic noise (Waddington, 1957) repre-
sents a random spontaneous variability of development
(Astaurov, 1978), which is a result of realization of cer-
tain allowances in canalization of the development of
moprhophysiological characters (Zakharov, 2001). It
has recently been stated that the frequency of phenode-
viants cannot serve as an operational index of develop-
mental instability, since they do not arise under the
standard conditions (Zakharov
, 2001). At the
same time, the organisms are subject to stress due to
various causes, which can affect the developmental sta-
bility within the allowances providing for realization of
the general program of formation of the phenotypic
characters. The symmetry of bilateral structures is con-
sidered to be the most demonstrative example, the devi-
ations from which represent ontogenetic noise. It was
proposed to use the level of ontogenetic noise as a ﬁne
index of developmental stability (Zakharov, 2001;
The frequency of chromosomal aberrations and
their consequences, such as the formation of micronu-
clei, is now widely used as an estimate of disturbance
of the cytogenetic state in the natural populations in
space and time (Il’inskikh
, 1992; Dmitriev and
Zakharov, 2001; Chubinishvili, 2001). In the practical
aspect, the analysis of cytogenetic homeostasis is
essential for ecological-genetic monitoring, including
the estimation of possible changes in the state of natural
populations under the natural conditions and afteref-
fects of various anthropogenic inﬂuences. The use of
cytogenetic approach for solving such tasks is promis-
ing both for characterization of environmental genotox-
icity and estimation of the state of organisms (Krysanov
and Dmitriev, 1993; Zakharov
, 1996; Dmitriev
and Zakharov, 2001).
However, it was shown in some studies on ﬁsh that
the frequency of phenodeviants in natural populations
was rather high (Steffens, 1966; Gill and Fisk, 1966;
Haaker and Lane, 1973; Kirpichnikov, 1987). Thus,
Kirpichnikov (1987) believed that the presence of phe-
nodeviants in a population could be considered as an
index of decreased genetic and developmental homeo-
stases. In turn, the decrease of genetic and developmen-
tal homeostases can be due to an increased level of
somatic mutations and chromosomal aberrations.
Here, we provide the results of cytogenetic analysis
of the cells of embryos of Coregonid ﬁsh occurring in
the river and lake ecosystems in the north of the
Tyumen’ District carried out in different years.
MATERIALS AND METHODS
Studies were carried out on developing embryos of
(Gmelin), Siberian white-
C. lavaretus pidschian
(Pallas), and muksun
(Pallas). Adult ﬁsh
were caught in the region of their spawning grounds
and gametes were collected from rope spawners.
Freshly obtained eggs from a group of females were
inseminated by sperm from several males. The washed
and swollen eggs were incubated in Weiss apparatuses.
The developing embryos were periodically ﬁxed after
Carnoix starting from the late blastula stage and squash
preparation were then prepared using the standard ace-
Cytogenetic Approach to Estimation of Developmental Stability
of the Natural Populations of Coregonid Fish
I. V. Pak
Tyumen State University, ul. Pirogova 3, Tyumen, 625043 Russia
Received May 17, 2002; in ﬁnal form, February 20, 2003
—A comparative cytogenetic analysis of Coregonid ﬁsh was carried out in the river and lake ecosys-
tems of the northern Tyumen’ District. The occurrence of chromosomal aberrations in embryonic cells of ﬁsh
steadily increased during the period from 1989 until 2001. Possible causes of this dynamic are discussed.
: ﬁsh embryos, aberrant cells, developmental defects, natural populations.