It is well established that the actin cytoskeleton is absolutely essential to pollen germination and tube growth. In this study we investigated the effects of cytochalasin B (CB), which affects actin polymerization by binding to the barbed end of actin filaments, on apple (Malus pumila Mill.) pollen tube growth. Results showed that CB altered the morphology of pollen tubes, which had a larger diameter than control tubes beside inhibiting pollen germination and tube growth. Meantime CB also caused an abnormal distribution of actin filaments in the shank of the treated pollen tubes. Fluo-3/AM labeling indicated that the gradient of cytosolic calcium ([Ca2+]c) in the pollen tube tip was abolished by exposure to CB, which induced a much stronger signal in the cytoplasm. Cellulose and callose distribution in the tube apex changed due to the CB treatment. Immunolabeling with different pectin and arabinogalactan protein (AGP) antibodies illustrated that CB induced an accumulation of pectins and AGPs in the tube cytoplasm and apex wall. The above results were further supported by Fourier-transform infrared (FTIR) analysis. The results suggest the disruption of actin can result in abnormal growth by disturbing the [Ca2+]c gradient and the distribution of cell wall components at the pollen tube apex.
Russian Journal of Plant Physiology – Springer Journals
Published: Jun 1, 2018