Cross-regulatory effects of immune and neuroendocrine systems on their appearance and functioning occur during a whole life period. At different stages of ontogenesis, the functions of these systems are diverse. In perinatal ontogenesis hormones, neuropeptides and neurotransmitters control the processes of growth and differentiation of various embryo tissues, particularly lymphoid. In the postnatal period, their functions are mostly in homeostasis maintaining of the immune system in response to changes of the environment. Conversely, transmitters of the immune system, such as cytokines, whose synthesis is increased in inflammation, and thymic peptides, program the development of the neuroendocrine system of the embryo. The perinatal period is crucial for final appearance of these systems. Changes in one of the interacting systems, caused by negative environmental factors at this stage, usually provoke changes in other developing systems for a long period. Plasticity of physiological systems in perinatal development allows the organism to adapt to changed conditions. However, these changes can limit physiological functions in interacting systems and induce the appearance of various pathologies in postnatal life.
Russian Journal of Developmental Biology – Springer Journals
Published: Dec 2, 2010
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