Psychiatric Quarterly [psaq] ph084-psaq-363098 June 21, 2002 13:49 Style ﬁle version Nov. 19th, 1999
Psychiatric Quarterly, Vol. 73, No. 3, Fall 2002 (
CRITICAL INCIDENT STRESS
MANAGEMENT (CISM): A STATISTICAL
REVIEW OF THE LITERATURE
George S. Everly, Jr., Ph.D., Raymond B. Flannery, Jr., Ph.D.,
and Victoria A. Eyler, M.S.
Crisis intervention has emerged over the last 50 years as a proven method
for the provision of urgent psychological support in the wake of a critical
incident or traumatic event. The history of crisis intervention is replete
with singular, time-limited interventions. As crisis intervention has evolved,
more sophisticated multicomponent crisis intervention systems have emerged.
As they have appeared in the extant empirically-based literature, their
results have proven promising. A previously published paper narratively
reviewed the Critical Incident Stress Management (CISM) model of multi-
component crisis intervention. The purpose of this paper was to offer a sta-
tistical review of CISM as an integrated multicomponent crisis intervention
system. Using the methodology of meta-analysis, a review of eight CISM
George S. Everly, Jr., Ph.D., is a Professor of Psychology, Loyola College in Maryland,
and an Associate in Public Health at the Johns Hopkins School of Hygiene and Public
Raymond B. Flannery, Jr., Ph.D., is Director of Training, the Massachusetts Depart-
ment of Mental Health, and Associate Clinical Professor of Psychology, Harvard Medical
School, Boston, MA.
Victoria A. Eyler, M.S., is a Graduate Student in Psychology, Loyola College in
Maryland, Baltimore, MD.
Address correspondence to George S. Everly, Jr., Ph.D., 702 Severnside Avenue,
Severna Park, MD 21146.
2002 Human Sciences Press, Inc.