Reviews in Fish Biology and Fisheries 12: 327–337, 2002.
© 2003 Kluwer Academic Publishers. Printed in the Netherlands.
Crevice spawning behavior in Dionda dichroma,withcommentsonthe
evolution of spawning modes in North American shiners (Teleostei:
Richard L. Mayden
& Andrew M. Simons
Department of Biology, Saint Louis University, 3507 Laclede Avenue, St. Louis, MO 63103, USA (Phone: 314-
977-3494; Fax: 314-977-3658; E-mail: email@example.com);
Department of Fisheries and Wildlife, and James
Ford Bell Museum of Natural History, University of Minnesota, 200 Hodson Hall, 1980 Folwell Avenue, St. Paul,
MN 55108, USA (E-mail: firstname.lastname@example.org)
Accepted 12 February 2003
Abstract page 327
Spawning modes 329
Key words: Cyprinidae, Dionda dichroma, North America spawning, spawning evolution, systematics
The crevice spawning behavior of Dionda dichroma is described for the ﬁrst time, and compared to spawning
behavior in the genus Cyprinella. The evolution of crevice spawning with respect to other spawning behaviors of
North American shiners is examined using explicitly phylogenetic hypotheses for this group. We present evidence
that broadcast spawning is plesiomorphic and all other spawning behaviors are independently derived. There is
evidence that crevice spawning has evolved independently at least three times within the shiner clade. There is no
support for an evolutionary transition between egg clustering and crevice spawning. Nest association, spawning
on habitat prepared by other species, has also evolved multiple times within this clade. Evolution of spawning in
shiners is best described by phylogenetic stasis with several independent origins of specialized spawning stragegies.
The North American cyprinid ﬁshes, referred to as
the phoxinin clade (Coburn and Cavender 1992), are
the most diverse group of ﬁshes on the continent.
The wide range of trophic morphologies, breeding
behaviors, and habitat preferences (to name just
a few characteristics) displayed by phoxinins is
unmatched by any other piscine group in North
America. They are found in habitats spanning high-
velocity headwater streams, large silt-laden rivers,
swamps, and lakes, where they function as algivores,