CREATION OF A COMBINED LIQUID
FOR IMPROVING PERICLASE-CARBON REFRACTORY LIFE
G. D. Semchenko,
V. V. Povshuk,
D. A. Brazhnik,
E. E. Starolat,
I. N. Rozhko,
and L. V. Rudenko
Translated from Novye Ogneupory, No. 12, pp. 21 – 24, December 2015.
Original article submitted July 28, 2015.
Results are given for creation of combined antioxidants for protecting graphite from oxidation based on ethyl
silicate, Al, and nickel oxalate, or based on ethyl silicate with addition of nickel sulfate (chloride) and Al. re
sults are given for optimizing the composition for combined antioxidants based on nickel oxalate, Al, and
ethyl silicate. The effect of combined antioxidant-modifiers on the properties of periclase-carbon refractory
specimens containing 3% graphite is demonstrated.
Keywords: liquid phenol formaldehyde resin, ethyl silicate, ash, nickel chloride, nickel sulfate, nickel oxa-
late, combined antioxidant Al + b-SiC + Ni(NiO).
Improvement of refractory quality and resistance to ac-
tion of slag and oxidation is one of the main tasks of materi-
als science. Development of new combined antioxidants and
reinforcement of carbon binder for periclase-carbon (PC) re-
fractory material by new formulations should improve the
life of MgO–C carbon-containing composite by creating a
dense layer of these new formulations around graphite flakes
and compaction with carbon binder.
Normally a reduction in carbon oxidation is achieved by
introducing various antioxidants into a charge of carbon-con
taining refractory, among which Al, Si, and SiC [1 – 3] are
used most often. Antioxidants react with carbon materials,
absorb oxygen, and densify the structure due to forming new
For more uniform distribution of antioxidant within a
charge it is introduced together with a binder, and the mix is
carefully stirred for 5 – 8 min. In PC-refractory technology a
sequence is considered for introduction of charge compo
nents, and careful mixing is carried out after introducing
each new additive. The overall duration of charge prepara
tion for PC-refractories using phenol formaldehyde resin
(PFR) as a binder is not less than 30 min [3, 4].
The possibility has been established [5, 6] of thinning
PFR with addition of tetraethoxysilane (TEOS) or ETS-32 as
a modifier, and also during synthesis of components of com-
position TEOS-PFR or ETS-PF on heating nanosize b-SiC to
1000°C and above, which as is well known is an antioxidant.
Synthesis of b-SiC in a carbon binder of PC-refractories
densifies material and facilitates an increase in its service life
. A combined antioxidant Al + b-SiC has been created us
ing aluminum metal together with silicon alkoxide, or ash
based on it,. Production aspects have been established for in
troduction of modifiers into a thermoplastic binder and their
application to the surface of graphite flakes, having a favor
able effect on refractory properties and oxidation resistance.
Use in PC-refractories of nickel-containing antioxidants is
unknown in technical publications. Therefore synthesis of
nickel-containing precursors, creation of a combined antioxi
dant Al + b-SiC + Ni, capable of forming a protective layer
among graphite flakes, preventing oxidation, and also a
study of the effect of this combined antioxidant-modifier on
material properties is interesting.
The task of this work was creation of a combined antiox
idant for protecting graphite from oxidation with use of liq
uid phenol formaldehyde resin.
In fact due to presence of urotropin within a refractory
charge composition based on PFR inorganic or organic
Refractories and Industrial Ceramics Vol. 56, No. 6, March, 2016
1083-4877/16/05606-0644 © 2016 Springer Science+Business Media New York
National technical University, Khar’kov Polytechnic Institute,