River flooding has been causing extensive losses to life and property, which is a serious concern worldwide. To minimize these losses, suitable planning and management practices are required for the floodplain mapping. Flash floods occur almost every year in the deltaic region of Brahmani and Baitarani river basins in India, during the monsoon season. Generally, 1D modelling is considered as a regular practice. But nowadays, model formulations include 1D for the representation of river channels and 2D for representing river floodplains. In the absence of uniform observations, a hybrid model (1D–2D coupled model) has been developed for this deltaic region to identify the extent of inundation and its depth during the flooding, since 1D models alone do not provide detailed information of flooding. Thus, a well-known 2D river hydrodynamic model iRIC was externally coupled with 1D (SWAT and SWMM) models to simulate and visualize flood scenarios and to identify the flood-prone areas. The hydrological model SWAT was calibrated and validated for Brahmani river deltaic basin, with the observed discharge data available. However for Baitarani river basin, observed flow data were missing and only gauge data were available at few monitoring stations. Hence, for Baitarani river basin, the SWMM model was developed and calibrated with the help of Monte Carlo method. Finally, the SWAT- and SWMM-based tributary stream flow outputs were fed together into the iRIC hydrodynamic model as input for flood inundation mapping. The discharge and water gauge data were used for the calibration and validation. The results obtained from the coupled model were found to be in good agreement with the observed data (RMSE value is 0.77 and 0.79 during calibration and validation, respectively), which enabled identification of the flood-prone areas. The developed model may be used as a tool for effective planning and management of natural disasters such as flash floods.
Natural Hazards – Springer Journals
Published: Apr 9, 2018
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