Cortex- and Amygdala-Dependent Learning and Nicotinic Acetylcholine Receptor Gene Expression is Severely Impaired in Mice Orally Treated with AlCl3

Cortex- and Amygdala-Dependent Learning and Nicotinic Acetylcholine Receptor Gene Expression is... Recent industrialization has increased human exposure to bio-available aluminum (Al). If more Al enters the brain than leaves, Al concentration will rise in the brain leading to neurodegenerative disorders. The aim of the present study was to determine Al concentration, neurodegeneration, and nicotinic acetylcholine receptor (nAChR) gene expression in the cortex and amygdala after oral ingestion of Al salt. The effect of Al on cortex- and amygdala-dependent learning and memory functions was also assessed. Mice were given AlCl3 (250 mg/kg) in drinking water for 42 days. nAChR gene expression was determined in the cortex and amygdala. The mice were subjected to behavior tests (fear conditioning, fear extinction, and open field), to assess memory deficits. The acquisition of fear memory in the fear conditioning test remained unaffected due to the Al administration. However, fear extinction (which is a new learning) was severely impaired. The behavioral analysis in the open field test showed greater anxiety and less adaptability to the new environment in Al-treated animals. High Al concentration and severe neurodegeneration in the cortex were observed following Al treatment while a slight, non-significant elevation in Al concentration was observed in the amygdala of Al-treated animals. The analysis of nAChR gene expression via RT-PCR showed a significant reduction in expression of α7, α4, and β2 nAChR genes in the cortex of Al-treated animals, while in the amygdala, the level of the α4 nAChR gene remained unaltered. Oral Al ingestion causes neuropathological changes and suppresses expression of nAChR genes that lead to deficits in learning and higher anxiety in Al-treated animals. http://www.deepdyve.com/assets/images/DeepDyve-Logo-lg.png Biological Trace Element Research Springer Journals

Cortex- and Amygdala-Dependent Learning and Nicotinic Acetylcholine Receptor Gene Expression is Severely Impaired in Mice Orally Treated with AlCl3

Loading next page...
 
/lp/springer_journal/cortex-and-amygdala-dependent-learning-and-nicotinic-acetylcholine-K9kwZruUXc
Publisher
Springer US
Copyright
Copyright © 2017 by Springer Science+Business Media New York
Subject
Life Sciences; Biochemistry, general; Biotechnology; Nutrition; Oncology
ISSN
0163-4984
eISSN
1559-0720
D.O.I.
10.1007/s12011-017-0942-1
Publisher site
See Article on Publisher Site

Abstract

Recent industrialization has increased human exposure to bio-available aluminum (Al). If more Al enters the brain than leaves, Al concentration will rise in the brain leading to neurodegenerative disorders. The aim of the present study was to determine Al concentration, neurodegeneration, and nicotinic acetylcholine receptor (nAChR) gene expression in the cortex and amygdala after oral ingestion of Al salt. The effect of Al on cortex- and amygdala-dependent learning and memory functions was also assessed. Mice were given AlCl3 (250 mg/kg) in drinking water for 42 days. nAChR gene expression was determined in the cortex and amygdala. The mice were subjected to behavior tests (fear conditioning, fear extinction, and open field), to assess memory deficits. The acquisition of fear memory in the fear conditioning test remained unaffected due to the Al administration. However, fear extinction (which is a new learning) was severely impaired. The behavioral analysis in the open field test showed greater anxiety and less adaptability to the new environment in Al-treated animals. High Al concentration and severe neurodegeneration in the cortex were observed following Al treatment while a slight, non-significant elevation in Al concentration was observed in the amygdala of Al-treated animals. The analysis of nAChR gene expression via RT-PCR showed a significant reduction in expression of α7, α4, and β2 nAChR genes in the cortex of Al-treated animals, while in the amygdala, the level of the α4 nAChR gene remained unaltered. Oral Al ingestion causes neuropathological changes and suppresses expression of nAChR genes that lead to deficits in learning and higher anxiety in Al-treated animals.

Journal

Biological Trace Element ResearchSpringer Journals

Published: Jan 18, 2017

References

You’re reading a free preview. Subscribe to read the entire article.


DeepDyve is your
personal research library

It’s your single place to instantly
discover and read the research
that matters to you.

Enjoy affordable access to
over 18 million articles from more than
15,000 peer-reviewed journals.

All for just $49/month

Explore the DeepDyve Library

Search

Query the DeepDyve database, plus search all of PubMed and Google Scholar seamlessly

Organize

Save any article or search result from DeepDyve, PubMed, and Google Scholar... all in one place.

Access

Get unlimited, online access to over 18 million full-text articles from more than 15,000 scientific journals.

Your journals are on DeepDyve

Read from thousands of the leading scholarly journals from SpringerNature, Elsevier, Wiley-Blackwell, Oxford University Press and more.

All the latest content is available, no embargo periods.

See the journals in your area

DeepDyve

Freelancer

DeepDyve

Pro

Price

FREE

$49/month
$360/year

Save searches from
Google Scholar,
PubMed

Create lists to
organize your research

Export lists, citations

Read DeepDyve articles

Abstract access only

Unlimited access to over
18 million full-text articles

Print

20 pages / month

PDF Discount

20% off