REFRACTORIES FOR NONFERROUS METALLURGY UNITS
V. V. Slovikovskii
and A. V. Gulyaeva
Translated from Novye Ogneupory, No. 9, pp. 33 – 37, September 2015.
Original article submitted May 11, 2015.
Results are provided for development of optimum technology for preparing periclase-carbon refractory (PCR)
by introducing carbon and antioxidizing agents into periclase refractory in different ways, i.e., pressing or vac
uum impregnation with coal tar paste. Lining zones are determined within which use of PCR is rational. PCR
refractories are tested and introduced into the slag belt of a reverberatory furnace in the Krasnoural Copper
Smelting Combine, and KhPT refractory impregnated with carbon paste is introduced into the lining of
Chelyabinsk Electrolytic Zinc Plant and Ust’-Kamenogorsk Lead-Zinc Combine Waelz kilns. Use of this lin
ing increased a unit campaign by 40 – 45%.
Keywords: graphite, chemical binder periclase-carbon refractory (PCR), thermal shock, aluminosilicate addi-
tive, Waelz kiln, reverberatory furnace.
In view of intensification of production processes in non-
ferrous metallurgy and a requirement for processing leaner
ores and concentrates there is an important question about
improving the service life of heating units, and connected
with this problem increasing refractory life. Improvement of
refractory properties may be achieved by using refractories
more resistant to slag and melt by introducing into their com
position different carbon-containing additives and binders
. The authors have carried out research concerning devel
opment of periclase-carbon refractories (PCR). The effect
has been studied of various additives (deoxidizing agents,
chemical binders, and glazes) on PCR physicomechanical
properties. The dependence has been considered for PCR op
erating capacity on slag composition, production parameters,
type of atmosphere, and unit operating temperature regime.
Specimens were prepared on the basis of finely-milled
periclase powder; the carbon-containing additive to a charge
was carbon material least damaged by oxidation, such as
flaky graphite in an amount from 0 to 30%. Specimens
20 mm in diameter and height were pressed at a pressure of
120 MPa. Analysis of the properties of PCR obtained
showed that an increase in carbon content did not lead to an
increase in specimen open porosity, but worsened their
strength indices. In determining the dependence of ultimate
strength in compression for fired specimens on their carbon
content it was established that specimen strength decreases
sharply with a graphite content of more than 10% (see
At the same time, testing of PCR for resistance to nonfer-
rous metallurgy slags showed that addition of 10 – 15% car
bon provides an increase in thermal shock and slag resis
tance. In order to reduce the unfavorable effect of graphite on
strength properties of objects PCR were prepared from
Refractories and Industrial Ceramics Vol. 56, No. 5, January, 2016
1083-4877/16/05605-0490 © 2016 Springer Science+Business Media New York
FGAOU VPO Ural Federal University, Ekaterinburg, Russia.
Fig. 1. Dependence of ultimate strength in compression s
periclase-carbon refractory on graphite content.