Keywords Electro-chemical impedance spectroscopy · Lead-acid batteries · Test cells · Equivalent electrical circuit modeling · Charge-transfer process · Butler–Volmer equation and contains the ohmic resistance, the charge-transfer 1 Introduction resistance, the double-layer capacitance, and an element representing diffusion processes [6 ]. In the evaluation of The electro-chemical impedance spectroscopy (EIS), parameterized EEC of lead-acid batteries, most attention which contains the complex impedance of the system at is given to the double-layer capacitance and the charge- different frequencies, was already used to analyze lead- transfer resistance, as both correspond to the electro-chem- acid batteries [1–5]. To measure the impedance, the bat- ical charge and discharge process on the surface of the tery is stimulated with a sinusoidal current of a defined electrode [1–5]. frequency and amplitude. Together with the sinusoidal To correctly identify EEC parameters from impedance voltage response, the impedance is calculated. This is spectra, the voltage response has to be generated by a lin- the galvanostatic method to measure the impedance. The ear and time-invariant system (LTI-system)  because the potentiostatic method with the voltage as stimulating sig- EEC elements themselves are linear and time-invariant. An nal is possible, too, but the state of charge can drift dur- electro-chemical system is time-variant
Journal of Applied Electrochemistry – Springer Journals
Published: Jun 2, 2018
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