ISSN 10674136, Russian Journal of Ecology, 2013, Vol. 44, No. 4, pp. 349–352. © Pleiades Publishing, Ltd., 2013.
In recent years, anthropogenic activities continu
ously increase the amount of heavy metals in the envi
ronment, especially in aquatic ecosystem. Pollution of
heavy metals in aquatic ecosystem is growing at an
alarming rate and has become an important worldwide
problem, so attention has been drawn to the levels of
heavy metals in freshwater and aquatic organisms
(Mombeshora et al., 1981; Malik et al., 2010). As
heavy metals cannot be degraded, they are deposited,
assimilated or incorporated in water, sediment and
aquatic animals and thus, causing heavy metal pollu
tion in water bodies (Malik et al., 2010; Linnik and
Diatoms are an important group of water ecosys
tems, they form a large part of the benthos (often 90–
95%) and therefore they are an important part of water
quality monitoring and a huge advantage of the
benthic diatoms is that they can be found in every sur
face water at any time (Tokath and Dayio lu, 2011).
Diatoms which are the most important source of oxy
gen and nutrient for all aquatic systems have a high
ecological value (Yildiz, 1984).
Porsuk Stream, which contains a dam lake on the
stream basin, is the longest branch of Sakarya River
(448 km). Sakarya River is the biggest river of North
west Anatolia and the third longest river of Turkey
(884 km). Porsuk Stream is exposed to industrial, agri
cultural and domestic wastes and carries this pollution
to the Black Sea through Sakarya River (Büyüker an
and Efelerli, 2006).
The aim of this study is determine to copper, zinc
and lead levels in water, sediment and epipelic diatom
frustules obtained from Porsuk Stream and to assess
the pollution of system.
The article is published in the original.
MATERIAL AND METHOD
2.1. Study Area and Collection of Samples
The stations selected on the Porsuk Stream are
shown on the map (Fig. 1). Sediment and water sam
ples were collected seasonally from all stations by
using sediment dipper, Ekman grab and suitable con
tainers. Epipelic diatom samples collected from over
sediment by using a glass pipe (Raund, 1981). Then
the diatoms were cleaned with sulfuric and nitric acid
for the elimination of organic contents (Yildirim,
Sediment and diatom samples were dried for 3 h at
C. 0.25 g of each sample was placed in Pyrex reac
tors of a CEM Mars Xpress 5 microwave digestion
acids of 1:3 proportions were
inserted in the reactors respectively. Samples were
mineralized at 200
C for thirty minutes. Afterwards,
the samples were filtered in such a way as to make their
volumes to 100 mL with ultrapure distilled water.
Water samples of 0.5 liter in volume were taken at
each sampling point and was adjusted to pH 2 with
2mL of HNO
being added to each. Element levels in
samples were determined by ICPOES (Varian 720 ES).
The element analyses were recorded as means tripli
cate measurements (ASTM, 1985; APHA, 1992; EPA,
1998; EPA, 2001).
Cluster similarity and distance analysis and Box
plot deviation diagrams were applied to the results by
using the Past package program. The graphics of water,
sediment and epipelic diatom frustules were made by
using the Microsoft office 2007 package program.
Copper, Zinc and Lead Concentrations of Epipelic Diatom Frustules
in Porsuk Stream (Sakarya River Basin, Turkey)
, Esengul Kose
, Arzu Cicek
, and Kazim Uysal
Dumlupinar University, Faculty of Science, Department of Biology, Kütahya, Turkey
Anadolu University, Applied Environmental Research Centre, Eski ehir, Turkey
Received July 2, 2012
Copper, Epipelic diatoms, Frustules, Lead, Porsuk Stream, Zinc