ISSN 1070-4272, Russian Journal of Applied Chemistry, 2016, Vol. 89, No. 8, pp. 1265−1273. © Pleiades Publishing, Ltd., 2016.
Original Russian Text © A.I. Abdulagatov, F.F. Orudzhev, M.Kh. Rabadanov, I.M. Abdulagatov,
2016, published in Zhurnal Prikladnoi Khimii, 2016, Vol. 89,
No. 8, pp. 1015−1023.
AND METAL CORROSION PROTECTION
The problems of controlling the surface wettability
have been attracting attention in the literature due to the
demands in widely differing areas, such as microﬂ uidics
, cell adhesion [2, 3], moisture condensation , and
intensiﬁ cation of the heat exchange in heating and cooling
systems [5, 6]. A vast number of methods for obtaining
surfaces with controlled wettability have been developed.
Among those, two categories can be distinguished:
chemical (chemical vapor deposition , self-assembly
[8–10], ion exchange  and photodecomposition )
and physical, based on the change in the surface roughness
(melting of polymers , ionic polymerization , and
laser etching ).
The best studied are silicon surfaces or surfaces of
some expensive materials, such as gold . In recent
years, gained popularity the application of copper as an
important construction material to enhance heat transfer,
in steam condensers at electric power plants, and heat
sinks for cooling of microelectronic using the surface
modiﬁ cation of the wettability gradient [16–18]. The
problems of thermal control and heat transfer in boiling
have been the subject of intense research during the last
decades [19, 20]. Some of the studies were concerned
with the intensiﬁ cation of the pool boiling due to the
decrease in the wetting contant angle (CA) via chemical
modiﬁ cation of the surface. In particular, a signiﬁ cant
increase in the critical heat ﬂ ux was reported as a result
of experiments in which titanium oxide and silicon oxide
coatings were used [20–22]. In these cases, the oxides
were used to improve the intermolecular attraction
between the solid and liquid phases to improve the
efﬁ ciency of heat transfer processes.
Typically, oxides are deposited onto planar substrates
by gas phase metal-organic chemical vapor deposition
(MOCVD), plasma-enhanced chemical vapor deposition
(PECVD), magnetron sputtering , and solution-
Copper Nanowire Arrays Surface Wettability Control Using
Atomic Layer Deposition of TiO
A. I. Abdulagatov
, F. F. Orudzhev
, M. Kh. Rabadanov
, and I. M. Abdulagatov
University of Colorado in Boulder, Boulder, CO 80309, U.S.A.
Dagestan State University, Makhachkala, ul. Gadzhieva 43a, Dagestan, 367018 Russia
* e-mail: email@example.com
Received July 4, 2016
Abstract—Template two step electrodeposition method and atomic layer deposition were used to synthesize cop-
per nanowires of varied length (1.2 to 26.2 μm) and copper nanowires coated with titanium dioxide. As a result
of the atomic layer deposition of TiO
, coated nanowires demonstrated an up to 10-fold decrease in the wetting
angle, compared with uncoated nanowires. It was found the dissipation rate is substantially higher for nanowires
coated by the atomic layer deposition method (100 s) as compared with the uncoated copper nanowires (400 s),
which assumes the positive properties of water propagation along the surface, necessary for improving the heat
transfer. It was also found that the water contact angle for uncoated nanowires and those coated with TiO
atomic layer deposition (ALD) gradually increases as the samples are kept in air. A gradual increase in wettability
was also observed for smooth silicon wafers coated by ALD of TiO
, which were exposed to air. On the coated
silicon substrates, the wetting angle gradually increased from 10° to approximately 56° in the course of four days.
In addition, it was shown that copper nanowires coated with TiO
by the atomic layer deposition method have an
excellent corrosion resistance, compared with uncoated nanowires, when brought in contact with air and water.