ISSN 1070-4272, Russian Journal of Applied Chemistry, 2016, Vol. 89, No. 12, pp. 1948−1954. © Pleiades Publishing, Ltd., 2016.
Original Russian Text © S.E. Alexandrov, K.D. Filatov, A.B. Speshilova, K.S. Tyurikov, V.D. Andreeva, D.A. Kirilenko,
2016, published in Zhurnal Prikladnoi
Khimii, 2016, Vol. 89, No. 12, pp. 1534−1540.
INORGANIC SYNTHESIS AND INDUSTRIAL
Control over Structural-Dimensional Characteristics
of Tungsten Disulﬁ de Particles in Aerosol-Assisted
Chemical Vapor Deposition
S. E. Alexandrov
*, K. D. Filatov
, A. B. Speshilova
K. S. Tyurikov
, V. D. Andreeva
, and D. A. Kirilenko
Peter the Great St. Petersburg Polytechnic University, ul. Politekhnicheskaya 29, St. Petersburg, 195251 Russia
Ioffe Physical-Technical Institute, Russian Academy of Sciences,
ul. Politekhnicheskaya 29, St. Petersburg, 194021 Russia
* e-mail: email@example.com
Received October 25, 2016
Abstract—Solutions of ammonium thiotungstate in dimethylformamide were used to synthesize spherical tungsten
disulﬁ de particles with average radius of 500–100 nm by the method of aerosol-assisted chemical vapor deposition.
Nanoparticles with composition close to stoichiometric tungsten disulﬁ de are formed at pyrolysis temperatures
not lower than 800°C. It was found that the average particle radius linearly decreases as the reagent concentration
in solution becomes lower, and the nebulizer power has no effect within the range under study on the size charac-
teristics and structure of the particles obtained. It was demonstrated that the particles have a layered structure that
is formed in all probability by S–W–S packets, which must provide high antifriction properties of the material
in its use as a high-temperature solid lubricant. The results obtained indicate that the size of tungsten disulﬁ de
particles can be controlled in a wide range in the course of the aerosol-assisted chemical vapor deposition. This
may be of interest for developing a technology for creating high-temperature wear-resistant antifriction coatings.
Owing to their “layered” structure constituted by Van-
der-Waals-bound packets formed by two atomic planes
of sulfur and a plane of molybdenum atoms in between,
tungsten and molybdenum disulfides have unique
physical properties, including those of antifriction nature
. Both substances are widely used as solid lubricants
working at high temperatures and in a vacuum  and can
be successfully applied in various ﬁ elds of technology.
Tungsten disulﬁ de is of particular interest because,
in addition to the high efficiency of lowering the
friction and wear of rubbing parts , it is a nontoxic
inert nonmagnetic material having a higher thermal
stability and oxidation resistance in air, compared with
molybdenum disulﬁ de .
The industry uses most widely tungsten disulﬁ de
micro- and nanoparticles, which can serve directly as
a solid lubricant  or as a component of composite
antifriction materials [6, 7].
Tungsten disulﬁ de nanoparticles are most widely
obtained on the industrial scale, including synthesis in
the form of inorganic fullerenes, by the interaction of
tungsten oxides with sulfur vapor or hydrogen sulﬁ de
. The processes of chemical vapor deposition, e.g.,
those based on the reactions in which tungsten carbonyl
interacts with hydrogen sulﬁ de or sulfur vapor, can also be
successfully used to synthesize WS
nanoparticles [8, 9].
The processes in which tungsten oxide or carbonyl
is sulﬁ dized are rather slow and the yield of the product
grows with their increasing duration [8, 10]. Of interest
in this context are techniques based on the pyrolysis of
reagents in which sulfur and tungsten atoms are already
present. This gives reason to believe that the disulﬁ de will
be formed in this case substantially faster. There are rather
detailed published data on the pyrolysis of ammonium
 and in pyrolysis of alkyl
tetratungstate , which enables a substantially faster