ISSN 1070-4272, Russian Journal of Applied Chemistry, 2008, Vol. 81, No. 9, pp. 1497!1502. + Pleiades Publishing, Ltd., 2008.
Original Russian Text + I.M. Malov, V.I. Zarembo, A.M. Syroezhko, 2008, published in Zhurnal Prikladnoi Khimii, 2008, Vol. 81, No. 9,
OF SYSTEMS AND PROCESSES
Control over Cracking of Heavy Petroleum Residue
by Weak Acoustic Fields
I. M. Malov, V. I. Zarembo, and A. M. Syroezhko
St. Petersburg State Institute of Technology (Technical University), St. Petersburg, Russia
Received February 12, 2007
Abstract-Effect of weak periodic electromagnetically excited acoustic pulses with a repetition frequency of
100 to 1000 kHz on thermolysis of petroleum residue was studied. It was shown that weak acoustic fields
affect the yield and quality of target products (gas, liquid, solid cracking residue).
Creation of innovation ways to intensify the exist-
ing processes of chemical industry is a topical task.
The method of background control over heterogene-
ous processes , based on specific features of the
media being controlled, makes it possible to shorten
the production cycle and change the technical-and-
economical parameters of the process both qualita-
tively and quantitatively without any significant
capital expenditure or direct change in both the
apparatus and technology employed.
Most of processes used in oil refining and treat-
ment of petroleum residue are accompanied by
phase transitions: evaporation and condensation,
melting and crystallization, etc. Controlling the
kinetics of phase transitions with chemical sub-
stances and physical fields allows optimization of the
processing of the oil stock and enables modification
of the properties of the products obtained. In con-
trast to chemical methods, the physical activation
does not impair the production efficiency and ex-
tends the range within which the process parameters
can be varied.
Acceleration of a phase transition is a favorable
factor in dehydration, deasphalting, dewaxing, and
in certain stages of coking. In thermal cracking,
there occur high-temperature degradation of hydro-
carbons and condensation of polyaromatic hydro-
carbons, regarded as crystallization and glass forma-
tion from a petroleum solution. In the industrial
technology for thermal cracking of black oils and
petroleum tars (viscosity breaking), it is desirable to
accelerate the thermal cracking of the heavy oil
stock without any noticeable coking (to reduce the
rate of formation of the solid phase via controlled
decrease in the rate of thermal condensation proc-
esses). It is noteworthy that the residual oil stock of
viscosity-breaking and delayed-coking installations
starts to undergo partial cracking already in the
stage of heating in coiled pipes of a tubular furnace.
In view of the aforesaid, the present study was
devoted to the effect of weak acoustic treatments on
the thermal cracking of petroleum tar.
The petroleum tar was taken from an AVT-6 in-
stallation at Kirishi petroleum refinery. Its param-
eters are listed in Table 1.
Table 1. Group composition of petroleum tar
³Yield based on pet-
³ roleum tar, wt %
Asphaltenes ³ 6.4
Maltenes ³ 93.6
Polar components (PCm): ³ 16.6
Oils: ³ 67.3*
paraffin3naphthene compounds³ 22.2*
monocycloaromatic compounds³ 18.6*
bicyclo- and polycycloaromatic ³ 26.5*
Resins: ³ 32.7*
toluene ³ 13.2*
alcohol3toluene ³ 19.5*
Nonpolar components ³ 83.4
* The yield of polar components is given relative to their sum
taken as 100%.