The periosteal arterioles of the compact bone may play a critical role in bone growth. To explore the contractile properties of tibial arterioles, spontaneous and nerve-evoked constrictions were compared in preparations from 3-week-old and 1-year-old guinea-pigs. Changes in arteriole diameters were measured using video microscopy. Their innervation was investigated using fluorescence immunohistochemistry. Fifty per cent and 40% of tibial arterioles from 3-week-old and 1-year-old guinea-pigs, respectively, exhibited spontaneous phasic constrictions that were inhibited by 1 μM nifedipine, 10 μM cyclopiazonic acid or 100 μM 2-APB. Nerve-evoked phasic constrictions in both age groups were largely suppressed by phentolamine (1 μM), an α-adrenoceptor antagonist, or sympathetic neurotransmitter depletion using guanethidine (10 μM) but were enhanced by spanttide (1 μM), a substance P receptor antagonist, or L-nitro arginine (L-NA; 100 μM), an inhibitor of nitric oxide synthase (NOS). Nerve-evoked constrictions in 1-year-old animals were smaller than those in younger animals but greatly enhanced by L-NA. Immunohistochemistry revealed sympathetic and substance P-positive primary afferent nerves running along the arterioles as well as endothelial NOS expression in both age groups. Spontaneous arteriolar constrictions appear to rely on both Ca2+ release from the sarcoplasmic reticulum and Ca2+ influx through L-type Ca2+ channels. Noradrenaline released from sympathetic nerves triggers arteriolar constriction, while substance P released from primary afferent nerves dilates the arterioles by releasing nitric oxide (NO), presumably from the endothelium. Thus, the enhanced endothelial NO release in adult guinea-pigs may be important to increase the blood supply to meet the increased metabolic demands during bone growth.
Pflügers Archiv European Journal of Physiologyl of Physiology – Springer Journals
Published: May 2, 2017
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