Contamination of live attenuated vaccines with an infectious feline endogenous retrovirus (RD-114 virus)

Contamination of live attenuated vaccines with an infectious feline endogenous retrovirus (RD-114... Retroviruses are classified as exogenous and endogenous retroviruses according to the mode of transmission. Endogenous retroviruses (ERVs) are retroviruses which have been integrated into germ-line cells and inherited from parents to offspring. Most ERVs are inactivated by deletions and mutations; however, certain ERVs maintain their infectivity and infect the same host and new hosts as exogenous retroviruses. All domestic cats have infectious ERVs, termed RD-114 virus. Several canine and feline attenuated vaccines are manufactured using RD-114 virus-producing cell lines such as Crandell-Rees feline kidney cells; therefore, it is possible that infectious RD-114 virus contaminates live attenuated vaccines. Recently, Japanese and UK research groups found that several feline and canine vaccines were indeed contaminated with infectious RD-114 virus. This was the first incidence of contamination of ‘infectious’ ERVs in live attenuated vaccines. RD-114 virus replicates efficiently in canine cell lines and primary cells. Therefore, it is possible that RD-114 virus infects dogs following inoculation with contaminated vaccines and induces proliferative diseases and immune suppression, if it adapts to grow efficiently in dogs. In this review, we summarize the incidence of contamination of RD-114 virus in live attenuated vaccines and potential risks of infection with RD-114 virus in dogs. Archives of Virology Springer Journals

Contamination of live attenuated vaccines with an infectious feline endogenous retrovirus (RD-114 virus)

Loading next page...
Springer Vienna
Copyright © 2014 by Springer-Verlag Wien
Biomedicine; Virology; Medical Microbiology; Infectious Diseases
Publisher site
See Article on Publisher Site


  • Biodistribution of the RD114/mammalian type D retrovirus receptor, RDR
    Green, BJ; Lee, CS; Rasko, JE
  • The evolution, distribution and diversity of endogenous retroviruses
    Gifford, R; Tristem, M
  • Infection of human cells by an endogenous retrovirus of pigs
    Patience, C; Takeuchi, Y; Weiss, RA
  • Sequence comparison of three infectious molecular clones of RD-114 virus
    Shimode, S; Yoshikawa, R; Hoshino, S; Nakaya, Y; Sakaguchi, S; Kobayashi, T; Miyazawa, T
  • Resurrection of endogenous retroviruses in antibody-deficient mice
    Young, GR; Eksmond, U; Salcedo, R; Alexopoulou, L; Stoye, JP; Kassiotis, G

You’re reading a free preview. Subscribe to read the entire article.

DeepDyve is your
personal research library

It’s your single place to instantly
discover and read the research
that matters to you.

Enjoy affordable access to
over 12 million articles from more than
10,000 peer-reviewed journals.

All for just $49/month

Explore the DeepDyve Library

Unlimited reading

Read as many articles as you need. Full articles with original layout, charts and figures. Read online, from anywhere.

Stay up to date

Keep up with your field with Personalized Recommendations and Follow Journals to get automatic updates.

Organize your research

It’s easy to organize your research with our built-in tools.

Your journals are on DeepDyve

Read from thousands of the leading scholarly journals from SpringerNature, Elsevier, Wiley-Blackwell, Oxford University Press and more.

All the latest content is available, no embargo periods.

See the journals in your area

Monthly Plan

  • Read unlimited articles
  • Personalized recommendations
  • No expiration
  • Print 20 pages per month
  • 20% off on PDF purchases
  • Organize your research
  • Get updates on your journals and topic searches


Start Free Trial

14-day Free Trial

Best Deal — 39% off

Annual Plan

  • All the features of the Professional Plan, but for 39% off!
  • Billed annually
  • No expiration
  • For the normal price of 10 articles elsewhere, you get one full year of unlimited access to articles.



billed annually
Start Free Trial

14-day Free Trial