Russian Journal of Applied Chemistry, 2011, Vol. 84, No. 1, pp. 156−163.
Pleiades Publishing, Ltd., 2011.
Original Russian Text © N.V. Tsvetkov, S.V. Bushin, M.A. Bezrukova, E.P. Astapenko, V.O. Ivanova, N.G. Mikusheva, E.V. Lebedeva,
A.N. Podseval’nikova, V.I. Slavyanov, A. K. Khripunov, 2011, published in Zhurnal Prikladnoi Khimii, 2011, Vol. 84, No. 1, pp. 156−163.
AND POLYMERIC MATERIALS
Conformational, Optical, and Electrooptical Properties
of Cellulose Pelargonates in Solutions
N. V. Tsvetkov
, S. V. Bushin
, M. A. Bezrukova
, E. P. Astapenko
V. O. Ivanova
, N. G. Mikusheva
, E. V. Lebedeva
, A. N. Podseval’nikova
V. I. Slavyanov
, and A. K. Khripunov
St. Petersburg State University, St. Petersburg, Russia
Institute of Macromolecular Compounds, Russian Academy of Sciences, St. Petersburg, Russia
Received February 15, 2010
Abstract—Newly prepared cellulose pelargonate samples of various molecular weights were studied in dioxane
and chloroform solutions by isothermal translation diffusion, high-speed sedimentation, ﬂ ow birefringence
(Maxwell effect), electric birefringence (Kerr effect), and viscometry. The conformational, hydrodynamic, optical,
electrooptical, and dynamic characteristics of the polymer were determined.
Cellulose pelargonates are aliphatic cellulose esters
(CEs), which form a large class of rigid-chain polymers.
These polymers are studied by methods of molecular
hydrodynamics and optics for a long time, and valuable
information on the structural and conformational
properties of polysaccharide derivatives has been
obtained . Various pendant groups signiﬁ cantly
modifying the characteristics of the polymeric
molecules can be linked to the cellulose backbone ,
which stimulates further studies of these compounds.
Recently there has been increased interest in aliphatic
CEs because of their capability to form polymeric mono-
and multilayers (Langmuir–Blodgett ﬁ lms), which can
be successfully used in micro- and nanoelectronics,
analytical biotechnology, bioelectronics, and membrane
In the past decades, the problem of large-scale
utilization of forests, which are the major source of
chemically pure cellulose, became extremely acute.
Therefore, numerous attempts are made to prepare
chemically pure cellulose by environmentally friendly
processes from alternative sources: annual plants, algae,
and products of microbial and bacterial vital activity.
In this study we examined the molecular char-
acteristics of cellulose pelargonate (CP) samples
prepared from cellulose of various origins (cotton,
microcrystalline, wood, animal, bacterial, from algae,
and from straw).
The conformational, optical, and electrooptical
characteristics of CP were studied by methods of
molecular hydrodynamics and dynamic and electric
birefringence in solution. As solvents we chose
chloroform (CF), dioxane (DO), and tetrachloroethane
CP samples were prepared as described in . The
pendant groups in CP macromolecules are acid residues
]. The degrees of substitution γ of the
samples are given in Table 1.
Molecular-hydrodynamics studies were performed
in chloroform. The intrinsic viscosity [η] was measured
with an Ostwald capillary viscometer by the standard
procedure  at temperatures varied in the range 21–
51°С. The diffusion coefﬁ cients D were measured with
a polarization diffusometer  in a glass cell 3 cm long
along the light beam at 24°С. The solution concentration
c did not exceed 0.1 × 10
, which corresponded
to practically limiting dilution. The ﬂ otation coefﬁ cients