REFRACTORIES IN HEAT UNITS
CONCEPTS OF REFRACTORY LINING FOR PIG-IRON LADLES
and J. Eder
Translated from Novye Ogneupory,No.5,pp.6–9,May,2007.
Original article submitted April 5, 2007.
The concept of lining for iron-carrying ladles and “tor
pedo” ladles (mixer-type iron-carrying ladles developed by
RHI Refractories) satisfies both individual customer require
ments and high resistance requirements; in this way unprece-
dented profitability is achieved. Furthermore, time of repair
has been brought down to a minimum by using innovative
techniques. The need for a new concept of refractory lining
and new solutions for ladles carrying molted pig iron and
“torpedo” ladles is becoming increasingly topical. The in-
tense desulfurizing processes, nonuniformly fluctuating ther-
mal conditions, and intensifying erosion processes limit the
applicability of standard lining. Although fired andalusite
and bauxite products have high heat and oxidation resistance,
they also have high infiltration and, therefore, are sensitive to
corrosion. On the other hand, corundum-silicon carbide car
bonaceous products, which usually contains antioxidants,
have excellent corrosion resistance, but frequently have limi
tations with respect to oxidation and decarbonizing.
The combination of refractories RESISTAL S55SiC and
UREX ASC708 developed by the RHI Refractories has both
types of advantages, which is especially obvious in the new
lining for ladles carrying pig iron, which has demonstrated
record resistance: 2645 castings at the Mittal Steel Galati
(Galati, Rumania). In addition to the high resistance of the
lining, this concept has several advantages:
— A lower energy (gas) consumption due to a decreased
number of lining replacements (decreased number of
— Improved service readiness of the ladle;
— Decreased total consumption of refractories.
In order to extend the campaign duration of ladles with
molten pig iron in different application areas, the RHI
Refractories has developed a new generation of fired anda
lusite products. Compared to standard fired andalusite pro-
ducts for pig-iron-carrying ladles, the recently developed
RESISTAL S55SiC products have improved physical prop-
erties. The new products based on andalusite and silicon car-
bide have been developed for lining of the least protected
sites in iron-casting ladles. RESISTAL S55SiC products con-
tain a combination of a ceramic and a carbonaceous binder
and have a very dense matrix and low porosity, which de-
creases infiltration. Furthermore, high corrosion and heat re-
sistance are essential properties of the new products. Such
products made from high-quality raw materials can be used
in contact with pig iron of any chemical composition and
slag of basicity CaO/SiO
< 2 and have the following exclu
— improved physical properties, which make it possible
to resist molten iron temperatures ranging from 1300 to
— high resistance to erosion at high temperatures due to
a high content of silicon carbide;
— low slag and molten iron infiltration due to a dense
— minimal thermal cracking due to improved elasticity
(flexibility) of the refractories.
Refractories UREX ASC based on a synthetic resin
binder contain silicon carbide, as well as top-grade high-alu
mina materials and are produced according to a special tech
nology. The lining of ladles for transporting fluid iron based
on these refractories can withstand a complex stressed state
arising in the course of transportation and processing of fluid
Refractories and Industrial Ceramics Vol. 48, No. 2, 2007
1083-4877/07/4802-00077 © 2007 Springer Science+Business Media, Inc.
RHI Refractories, Business Unit Steel Europe, Vienna, Austria.
RHI Refractories Technological Center, Leoben, Austria.
RHI Refractories, Leoben, Austria.