For the first time, zooplankton and environmental factors have been studied in winter in the deep stratified lakes Siverskoe, Borodaevskoe, and Vydogoshch. The zooplankton consists of 18–22 species of rotifers, copepods, and cladocerans, including 15–18 specifically winter, cryophilic and eurythermic forms. The populations of zooplankters reproduce actively: males and egg-bearing females (in copepods), females with embryos and eggs in brood pouches (in cladocerans), and females with attached eggs (in rotifers) are present. In lakes Siverskoe and Borodaevskoe (depth 20–24 m), where oxygen deficiency is observed only in the bottom water layer, the zooplankton populates the greater part of the water column and forms a large aggregation in the oxycline and near the bottom. The abundance of bacteria in these zones is high (up to 4–6 × 106 cells/ml). In Lake Vydogoshch (depth 16 m), oxygen deficiency extends to the middle layers, and all zooplankton is distributed above the oxycline. The biomass of winter zooplankton in Lake Siverskoe in 1983 averaged 1.26 g/m3, with a maximum of 4 g/m3; in 1993, 1.4 and 8.04 g/m2; the respective values in Lake Borodaevskoe were 0.98 and 3.1 in 1983 and 0.14 and 1.6 in 1993; in Lake Vydogoshch, 0.15 and 0.24 in 1983 and 1.25 g/m3 in 1993. The development of winter zooplankton is limited by the size of the zone of oxygen deficiency and depends on the amount of food (bacterioplankton). The distribution of zooplankton in the water column and its biomass in individual layers is determined by the rate of methane formation and oxidation.
Russian Journal of Ecology – Springer Journals
Published: May 16, 2005
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