Russian Journal of Applied Chemistry, 2013, Vol. 86, No. 6, pp. 933−938.
Pleiades Publishing, Ltd., 2013.
Original Russian Text © Yu.N. Sazanov, S.M. Krutov, T.N. Spirina, T.A. Kostereva, N.N. Saprykina, E.N. Popova, O.A. Andreeva, A.V. Novoselova, 2013,
published in Zhurnal Prikladnoi Khimii, 2013, Vol. 86, No. 6, pp. 992−997.
AND POLYMERIC MATERIALS
Composite Precursor of Polyacrylonitrile
with Hydrolytic Lignin
Yu. N. Sazanov
, S. M. Krutov
, T. N. Spirina
, T. A. Kostereva
, N. N. Saprykina
, E. N. Popova
O. A. Andreeva
, and A. V. Novoselova
Institute of Macromolecular Compounds, Russian Academy of Sciences, St. Petersburg, Russia
Kirov State Forest Technical University, St. Petersburg, Russia
Received April 13, 2013
Abstract—Composite precursor based on hydrolytic lignin and polyacrylonitrile was obtained and ﬁ brous com-
posite materials were formed at 80 : 20 to 40 : 60 ratios between the starting components. A probable mechanism
is suggested by which products of cocarbonization of lignin and polyacrylonitrile are formed, with 80–90 wt %
carbonized residue produced in an inert atmosphere.
The problem of utilization of hydrolytic lignin
(HLG) is still of practical importance. The balance
between the use of HLG and its accumulation as a waste
is at the 1 : 10 level. One of promising opportunities to
change this ratio is via formation of HLG composites
with synthetic polymers. The advances in this area have
been reﬂ ected in a number of publications [1–5], whose
number continues to grow. However, these studies
hardly provide any evidence about combination of
HLG with polyacrylonitrile (PAN). Only in , it was
indirectly mentioned that copolymerization of low-
molecular derivatives of HLG with PAN occurs after a
thermal-hydrolytic treatment of the latter.
Based on the experience of recent research activities
[7–9] in which an interaction of HLG with PAN was
observed, we formulated the goal of the present study:
to use PAN as a reinforcing component of HLG in order
to obtain mixed HLG–PAN precursors and ﬁ bers on
their basis. The precursors are intended for fabrication
of carbonized ﬁ bers.
Solution of this problem involves purposeful choice
of HLG and PAN samples containing functional groups
that provide an interaction between both components.
To groups of this kind belong oxygen-containing groups
, COOH, OH, and CO) contained in HLG in
sufﬁ cient amounts. As for PAN, the presence of such
groups can be accounted for by the technological
speciﬁ city of PAN synthesis, with derivatives of
carboxylic acids used as comonomers. One of important
conditions for interaction between HLG and PAN is
the correct choice of a solvent that would provide a
reliable solubility of the starting components and serve
as a reaction medium for their interaction. DMSO is a
solvent of this kind, widely used recently in chemistry
of lignins [10–13] and in fabrication of ﬁ bers from PAN
Hydrolytic lignin from Kirov hydrolysis plant,
micronized to 5–10 μm, was puriﬁ ed by methods
described in .
Polyacrylonitrile, a commercial product from Nitron,
was a copolymer of acrylonitrile with methylacrylate
and itaconic acid with MM (130–180) × 10
Dimethyl sulfoxide purchased from Vekton ZAO was
of chemically pure grade [TU (Technical Speciﬁ cation)