ISSN 1070-4272, Russian Journal of Applied Chemistry, 2008, Vol. 81, No. 12, pp. 2118–2121. © Pleiades Publishing, Ltd., 2008.
Original Russian Text © M.V. Efanov, V.A. Novozhenov, N.V. Ignatova, S.V. Makarov, M.K. Kotvanova, 2008, published in Zhurnal Prikladnoi Khimii,
2008, Vol. 81, No. 12, pp. 2007–2010.
Composite Materials Based on Acetylated Wood
and Aluminum and Its Compounds
M. V. Efanov, V. A. Novozhenov, N. V. Ignatova, S. V. Makarov, and M. K. Kotvanova
Altai State University, State Educational Institution of Higher Professional Education, Barnaul, Russia
Yugra State University, State Educational Institution of Higher Professional Education, Khanty-Mansiisk, Russia
Received January 16, 2008
Abstract—The possibility of preparing new composite materials from acetylated wood and aluminum,
aluminum chloride, and aluminum hydroxide as mineral fillers was examined.
Acylation of vegetable raw materials is an effec-
tive route of their chemical modification. Polymeric
acylation products (esters of lignocarbohydrate materi-
als) are soluble in organic solvents, exhibit hydropho-
bic and thermoplastic properties, and are biostable.
These physicomechanical properties determine the pos-
sible applications of acylated lignocarbohydrate mate-
The use of acylated wood as a thermoplastic
binder for preparing composite materials with mineral
and wood fillers allows fabrication of boards with
good physicomechanical parameters and hydrophobic
properties. This is favored by the high thermoplasticity
of acylated wood and its good adhesion to mineral and
organic fillers .
Procedures have been developed for preparing
esters from wood mechanochemically activated in the
presence of catalysts, involving acylation of wood with
a mixture of acetic anhydride with aliphatic carboxylic
acid at 100–130°C for 4–6 h [3, 4]. These procedures
have significant drawbacks: long process time (4–6 h),
high temperature (100–130°C), and high consumption
of acylating agents (3–10 mol).
The known procedure for preparing wood–mineral
composite materials involves preparation of a cellu-
lose-containing vegetable filler, its treatment with
chemical additives (water glass, aluminum sulfate, cal-
cium chloride), combination with a mineral binder
(e.g., Portland cement of grade 400–500), forming of
the composite, pressing, heat treatment, storage, and
drying of the finished item . However, the physi-
comechanical parameters of the resulting articles and
their strength and water resistance are poor.
In this study, we prepared composite materials
based on acetylated wood and aluminum and its com-
pounds. We examined the strength properties and elec-
trical conductivity of these materials.
PROCESSES AND EQUIPMENT
OF CHEMICAL INDUSTRY
For activation of wood prior to the acetylation, it
was subjected to cavitation pretreatment on a rotary
cavitation apparatus at a rotor rotation rate of 3000 rpm.
A 500-g portion of air-dry aspen sawdust (fraction 1–
3 mm) was placed in a 50-l glass vessel and poured
over with 8 l of water. The treatment was performed at
60°C for 30 min. Then the treated wood was filtered
off with a linen filter, washed with water to neutral
reaction, squeezed on the filter, and air-dried to con-
The acetylation of activated aspen wood was per-
formed as follows. A 3.0-g portion of air-dry activated
sawdust was placed in a 250-ml round-bottomed flask
equipped with a reflux condenser and placed on an oil
bath (thermostat). Then a suspension of ammonium
sulfate (20 wt
% relative to wood) in 3 mol of acetic
anhydride was added. The mixture was heated at 125°C
for 4 h. Then the flask was cooled to room tempera-
ture, and 100 ml of distilled water was added. The
mixture was filtered off on a glass frit (pore class 160)
and washed with distilled water to remove acetic acid
and the catalyst to neutral reaction and absence of sul-