Russian Journal of Applied Chemistry, 2013, Vol. 86, No. 11, pp. 1729−1734.
Pleiades Publishing, Ltd., 2013.
Original English Text © B.I. Bairachnyi, A.G. Tul’skaya, V.B. Bairachnyi, 2013, published in Zhurnal Prikladnoi Khimii, 2013, Vol. 86, No. 11, pp. 1780−1785.
OF ELECTROCHEMICAL INDUSTRY
Composite Gas-Diffusion Anodes
for Hydrogen Generation
by the Sulfate-Acid Procedure
B. I. Bairachnyi, A. G. Tul’skaya, and V. B. Bairachnyi
National Technical University “Kharkov Polytechnic University,” Kharkov, Ukraine
Received November 5, 2013
Abstract—New composite catalytically-active coatings of gas-diffusion graphite electrodes were offered for the
oxidation in the sulfate-acid cycle of hydrogen generation. Kinetics of SO
porous graphite electrodes activated by platinum and metal-oxide catalysts was studied.
World experience on the development of energy
technologies shows that hydrogen is the most promising
fuel for after years. Production of hydrogen by the water
electrolysis using low-cost electric power of atomic power
stations makes it possible to increase competitiveness of
this method and to solve effectively problems of peak and
off-peak loads arising in connection with various patterns
of current consumption within a day [1, 2].
To solve problems of the atomic-hydrogen power en-
gineering, works on the development of the electrolysis
of aqueous alkaline solutions are in progress for already
more than 40 years in the engineering electrochemistry
department of the National technical university “Kharkov
polytechnic university”. The further evolution of hydro-
gen production by the electrolysis of water is connected
with a solution of problems of technical implementation
of the sulfate-acid cycle (Westinghouse corporation) .
It consists of two steps, the ﬁ rst high-temperature step
being carried out thermochemically:
Т = 900 K
О + SO
and the second low-temperature step, electrochemically:
O + SO
The EMF of an electrochemical cell for the anode
process depolarized by SO
is 0.17 V at 300 K while
the theoretically necessary potential difference for the
process of water electrolysis is 1.23 V . Thus, the
practical implementation of the electrolysis cycle with
depolarization of the anode process by SO
30–60% of the electric power necessary for the direct
electrolysis of water.
The high-temperature stage of this cycle, the fast
catalytic process, is well understood and assimilated by
chemical industry. The electrochemical process is still
far from the technical implementation and is intensively
studied in recent time.
The anode process with depolarization by SO
been investigated and offered for the practical implemen-
tation with anodes containing platinum, gold, palladium,
and their alloys [2, 3]. A large-scale introduction of this
method requires application of more moderate anode
materials. In view of the range of anode potentials, at
which the anode process depolarization takes place at
the electrolysis of sulfate solutions, of great interest is the
use of RuO
, and their compositions with
activated carbon deposited on an inert porous current-
We used porous graphite PG-50 as a support for the