ANNOTATED SEQUENCE RECORD
Complete genomic sequence of virulent Cronobacter sakazakii
phage ESSI-2 isolated from swine feces
Received: 21 October 2010 / Accepted: 22 January 2011 / Published online: 11 February 2011
Ó Springer-Verlag 2011
Abstract A newly identiﬁed virulent Cronobacter sak-
azakii phage, ESSI-2, was isolated from fecal samples from
swine. The morphological characteristics evident under a
transmission electron microscope indicated that phage
ESSI-2 belonged to the family Myoviridae. The genome of
phage ESSI-2 comprised a double-stranded DNA of
28,765 bp with a G?C content of 55.17%. Bioinformatic
analysis of the phage genome identiﬁed 36 putative open
reading frames (ORFs). The genome of phage ESSI-2 was
not signiﬁcantly similar to that of a previously reported
bacteriophage of the members of Enterobacteriaceae.A
lysogeny module was found within the genome of this
Cronobacter spp. was previously known as Enterobacter
sakazakii. Cronobacter spp. are motile, peritrichous, Gram-
negative, rod-shaped, non-spore-forming bacteria [7, 9].
This genus includes the type species, C. sakazakii comb.
nov. (genome cluster group 1) with C. sakazakii subsp.
sakazakii comb. nov. and C. sakazakii subsp. malonaticus
subsp. nov.; C. turicensis sp. nov. (genome cluster group 2
strains); C. muytjensii sp. nov. (genome cluster group 3);
and C. dublinensis sp. nov. (genome cluster group 4),
described by Iversen et al. [14, 15]. Infectious diseases
caused by Cronobacter spp. are very important causes of
meningitis, bacteremia, necrotizing enterocolitis, and sep-
ticemia in infants and neonates [18, 25]. Cronobacter spp.
are frequently found to contaminate the environment, plant
materials, powdered infant formulae, cereal foods, fer-
mented beverages, fruits, and vegetables [2, 3, 6]. The
reason for the presence of Cronobacter spp. and the
mechanism underlying their survival in the abovemen-
tioned products remains unclear . However, many
investigators have reported that the survival of Cronob-
acter spp. in various foods is affected by the type of grain
components, storage temperatures, and cross-contamina-
tion . Recently, successful biocontrol of harmful
microorganisms in several foods through the use of bac-
teriophages has been shown [4, 5, 10, 19].
Bacteriophages have been intensively studied and have
been used in a variety of practical applications. A potential
application may be their use as antimicrobial agents in light
of the burgeoning antibiotic resistance of bacteria .
Because of the speciﬁc interaction of a given bacteriophage
and its host bacterium, bacteriophages can be used to detect
pathogenic bacteria . Moreover, bacteriophages have
been used to control pathogenic bacteria during production
of food derived from plants and animals and in perishable
foods during storage [11, 13]. More recently, bacterio-
phages have been exploited in an attempt to eradicate
bacterial bioﬁlms . In this study, we performed a
morphogenetic analysis and bioinformatic analysis of the
genome sequence of the newly identiﬁed virulent C. sak-
azakii phage ESSI-2 isolated from fecal samples of swine.
Hyo-Ihl Chang and Jong-Hyun Park contributed equally.
Electronic supplementary material The online version of this
article (doi:10.1007/s00705-011-0934-y) contains supplementary
material, which is available to authorized users.
Y.-D. Lee Á H.-I. Chang (&)
School of Life Science and Biotechnology, Korea University,
Anam-Dong, Sungbuk-Gu, Seoul 136-701, South Korea
Y.-D. Lee Á J.-H. Park (&)
Department of Food Science and Biotechnology, Kyungwon
University, Sungnam-Si, Kyunggi-Do 461-701, South Korea
Arch Virol (2011) 156:721–724