ANNOTATED SEQUENCE RECORD
Complete genome sequence of Agrotis segetum granulovirus
Received: 6 September 2013 / Accepted: 21 January 2014 / Published online: 12 February 2014
Ó Springer-Verlag Wien 2014
Abstract The complete nucleotide sequence of Agrotis
segetum granulovirus Shanghai strain (AgseGV-L1) was
determined and compared with that of AgseGV Xinjiang
strain (AgseGV-XJ). The circular genome of AgseGV-L1
is 131,442 bp and has a G?C content of 37.27 %. It
includes 149 ORFs, 24 of which are unique to AgseGV
(AgseGV-L1 and AgseGV-XJ [GenBank accession no.
NC_005839]). The average level of amino acid sequence
identity between AgseGV-L1 and other granulovirus (GV)
homologues (except AgseGV-XJ) ranged from 44.3 %
(Adoxophyes orana granulovirus [AdorGV]) to 49 % (Cy-
dia pomonella granulovirus [CpGV]). The AgseGV-L1
genome is 99 % identical to that of AgseGV-XJ. They have
196 differences, including 172 substitutions, 21 deletions
and 3 insertions. Two homologous regions (hrs) were
detected in two intergenic spaces, which share low identity
and both lack a palindromic core. A p6.9 gene was found in
this genome, which shared 38 %-59 % amino acid identity
with those of other baculoviruses. No differences were
found in the hr and p6.9 sequences of AgseGV-L1 and
AgseGV-XJ. Ie-1 is a known immediate-early gene, but
AgseGV-L1 ie-1 has no recognizable promoter element.
By BLASTP analysis, one bro gene homologue of NPVs
was detected (Agse148). Phylogenetic analysis based on
the 29 core baculovirus genes indicated that AgseGV-L1 is
closely related to AgseGV-XJ, Helicoverpa armigera
granulovirus (HearGV), Helicoverpa armigera granulovi-
rus (XecnGV), Pseudaletia unipuncta granulovirus
(PsunGV), Spodoptera litura granulovirus (SpliGV) and
Plutella xylostella granulovirus (PlxyGV).
Baculoviruses are rod-shaped, enveloped DNA viruses of
the family Baculoviridae that have been isolated exclu-
sively from arthropods. At present, this family is divided
into four genera: Alphabaculovirus (lepidopteran-speciﬁc
nucleopolyhedroviruses [NPVs]), Betabaculovirus (lepi-
dopteran-speciﬁc granuloviruses [GVs]), Gammabaculovi-
rus (hymenopteran-speciﬁc NPVs), and Deltabaculovirus
(dipteran-speciﬁc NPVs) . To date, 60 baculovirus
genomes have been sequenced (http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.
14 Betabaculovirus genomes.
Agrotis segetum (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae), a cutworm
common in Europe, Asia, and Africa, attacks the roots and
lower stems of a huge range of plants and can be a par-
ticularly serious pest of root vegetables and cereals.
Attacking the lower stems often results in cutting down
Z. Liang is the joint ﬁrst author.
Electronic supplementary material The online version of this
article (doi:10.1007/s00705-014-2001-y) contains supplementary
material, which is available to authorized users.
X. Zhang (&) Á Z. Liang Á J. Wang Á X. Shao
College of Life Sciences, Henan Agricultural University,
Zhengzhou 450002, China
Key Laboratory of Enzyme Engineering of Agricultural
Microbiology, Ministry of Agriculture, Zhengzhou 450002,
College of Plant Protection, Henan Agricultural University,
Zhengzhou 450002, China
Arch Virol (2014) 159:1869–1872