Russian Journal of Applied Chemistry, 2012, Vol. 85, No. 9, pp. 1413−1421.
Pleiades Publishing, Ltd., 2012.
Original Russian Text © A.M. Bochek, I.L. Shevchuk, I.I. Gavrilova, N.A. Nesterova, E.F. Panarin, V.E. Yudin, M.F. Lebedeva, E.N. Popova, L.M. Kalyuzhnaya,
B.Z. Volchek, E.N. Vlasova, 2012, published in Zhurnal Prikladnoi Khimii, 2012, Vol. 85, No. 9, pp. 1502−1510.
AND POLYMERIC MATERIALS
Compatibility of Carboxymethyl Cellulose Ionized
to Various Degrees with Poly-N-vinylformamide
in Composite Films
A. M. Bochek, I. L. Shevchuk, I. I. Gavrilova, N. A. Nesterova, E. F. Panarin, V. E. Yudin,
M. F. Lebedeva, E. N. Popova, L. M. Kalyuzhnaya, B. Z. Volchek, and E. N. Vlasova
Institute of Macromolecular Compounds, Russian Academy of Sciences, St. Petersburg, Russia;
Received May 11, 2012
Abstract—Composite ﬁ lms were obtained from aqueous solutions of blends of carboxymethyl cellulose ionized
to various degrees and poly-N-vinylformamide. The composition ranges in which the polymers are compatible
were determined by solvent vapor sorption and by dynamic mechanical analysis. The heat resistance of the ﬁ lms
and the interaction of the polymers in the solid state were examined by DSC, TGA, and Fourier IR spectroscopy.
The possibility of preparing cellulose materials with
new functional properties and improved mechanical char-
acteristics by combining cellulose ethers with synthetic
polymers is of scientiﬁ c and practical interest [1, 2].
Among cellulose ethers, the most widely used are water-
soluble ethers: methyl cellulose, carboxymethyl cellulose
sodium salt (NaCMC), hydroxyethyl cellulose, etc. .
Water-soluble synthetic polymers such as poly-N-
vinylamides are widely used today in medicine, biotech-
nology, and other branches of science and engineering.
Among them, poly-N-vinylpyrrolidone and poly-N-
vinylcaprolactam have been extensively studied. Of no
less scientiﬁ c interest is also poly-N-vinylformamide
(PVFA), which is used in the development of new deter-
gents and copolymers based on it, and also in production
of ﬂ occulants [4–6].
As we showed in [7, 8], depending on the common
solvent used (water or organic solvent), it is possible to
prepare composite ﬁ lms of methyl cellulose with PVFA
of various compositions within the compatibility range.
Also we reported on polymeric composites based on car-
boxymethyl cellulose (CMC) ionized to various degrees
α and PVFA . As in MC–PVFA ﬁ lms, in CMC–PVFA
blends the polymers form a system of hydrogen bonds be-
tween OH groups of the cellulose ether and amide groups
of the polyamide [10–12]. Gels based on CMC–PVFA
blends are used in medicine . By varying the degree of
ionization of CMC, it is possible to vary the rheological
properties and solubility of the cellulose ether in water
[13, 14], and also its compatibility with other polymers
in solutions and in the solid phase.
In this study we examined the compatibility of CMC
ionized to various degrees with PVFA in the solid state,
the heat resistance of the composite ﬁ lms, and the mecha-
nism of interaction of the polymer macromolecules.
As starting materials we used a commercial NaCMC
sample (degree of substitution DS = 0.46, MW = 92 kDa,
degree of polymerization DP
= 460) and PVFA syn-
thesized in a laboratory (MW = 72 kDa). The NaCMC
conversion to the H form was performed in a 2 wt % so-
lution of the polymer . The procedures for preparing
solutions of polymer blends and ﬁ lms are described in .
The relaxation transition temperatures were