Compartmentation of Cadmium and Iron in Mesembryanthemum crystallinum Plants during the Adaptation to Cadmium Stress

Compartmentation of Cadmium and Iron in Mesembryanthemum crystallinum Plants during the... The common ice plants (Mesembryanthemum crystallinum) at the stage of five leaf pairs were exposed to cadmium chloride solutions (1, 0.1, and 0.01 mM) under the conditions of water culture. After five days, the partition of cadmium and iron in the plant organs and in the cell structures of the apical root region were investigated. Plant adaptation to excess cadmium in the environment was assessed by an increase in the leaf and root weight, a change in peroxidase activity, and an accumulation of proline. The common ice plant accumulated cadmium mainly in the root system. At a high concentration of cadmium in the nutrient solution (1 mM), its content in the root exceeded 2 g/kg fr wt, while at a concentration of 0.01 mM, it was as low as 10 mg/kg. Dithizone staining of transverse sections of the root apical region showed that, after a 48-h-long exposure of plants to 0.1 mM cadmium chloride, cadmium was localized in the cell walls of endodermis and metaxylem. The level of cadmium in leaves varied from 0.5 to 18 mg/kg fr wt. However, there was only a weak correlation between cadmium accumulation and the extent of a biomass decrease in the leaves of various stories, when cadmium concentration in the medium (1 mM cadmium chloride) was toxic. This fact could be related to a marked efflux of endogenous iron from old leaves into the young ones and to a change in the cadmium/iron ratio in the tissues. Proline accumulation in the third leaf pair and in the roots occurred at a relatively low cadmium content (10–12 mg/kg fr wt) in these organs. Maxima of activity of all three forms of peroxidase, viz., soluble, ionically-bound, and covalently-bound peroxidases, in roots were found at a high accumulation of cadmium in these organs (45 mg/kg fr wt). These maxima exceeded 3–4-fold the activity in aging leaves containing 5 mg cadmium/kg fr wt. A decrease in peroxidase activity in leaves was accompanied by a 3.3-fold decrease in iron content; thus, it could be caused by a deficiency of available iron necessary for the enzyme functioning. It was concluded that the resistance of Mesembryanthemum crystallinum, a halophyte, to excess cadmium content in the medium was achieved by its predominant accumulation in roots, where excess cadmium is compartmentalized in the apoplast and seems to be subjected to detoxification through pectate formation. Moreover, the leaves and, particularly, the roots are characterized by a high activity of the antioxidant systems, such as guaiacol-dependent peroxidases, and an occurrence of proline at modest cadmium concentrations. http://www.deepdyve.com/assets/images/DeepDyve-Logo-lg.png Russian Journal of Plant Physiology Springer Journals

Compartmentation of Cadmium and Iron in Mesembryanthemum crystallinum Plants during the Adaptation to Cadmium Stress

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Publisher
Kluwer Academic Publishers-Plenum Publishers
Copyright
Copyright © 2003 by MAIK “Nauka/Interperiodica”
Subject
Life Sciences; Plant Sciences
ISSN
1021-4437
eISSN
1608-3407
D.O.I.
10.1023/A:1025652510658
Publisher site
See Article on Publisher Site

Abstract

The common ice plants (Mesembryanthemum crystallinum) at the stage of five leaf pairs were exposed to cadmium chloride solutions (1, 0.1, and 0.01 mM) under the conditions of water culture. After five days, the partition of cadmium and iron in the plant organs and in the cell structures of the apical root region were investigated. Plant adaptation to excess cadmium in the environment was assessed by an increase in the leaf and root weight, a change in peroxidase activity, and an accumulation of proline. The common ice plant accumulated cadmium mainly in the root system. At a high concentration of cadmium in the nutrient solution (1 mM), its content in the root exceeded 2 g/kg fr wt, while at a concentration of 0.01 mM, it was as low as 10 mg/kg. Dithizone staining of transverse sections of the root apical region showed that, after a 48-h-long exposure of plants to 0.1 mM cadmium chloride, cadmium was localized in the cell walls of endodermis and metaxylem. The level of cadmium in leaves varied from 0.5 to 18 mg/kg fr wt. However, there was only a weak correlation between cadmium accumulation and the extent of a biomass decrease in the leaves of various stories, when cadmium concentration in the medium (1 mM cadmium chloride) was toxic. This fact could be related to a marked efflux of endogenous iron from old leaves into the young ones and to a change in the cadmium/iron ratio in the tissues. Proline accumulation in the third leaf pair and in the roots occurred at a relatively low cadmium content (10–12 mg/kg fr wt) in these organs. Maxima of activity of all three forms of peroxidase, viz., soluble, ionically-bound, and covalently-bound peroxidases, in roots were found at a high accumulation of cadmium in these organs (45 mg/kg fr wt). These maxima exceeded 3–4-fold the activity in aging leaves containing 5 mg cadmium/kg fr wt. A decrease in peroxidase activity in leaves was accompanied by a 3.3-fold decrease in iron content; thus, it could be caused by a deficiency of available iron necessary for the enzyme functioning. It was concluded that the resistance of Mesembryanthemum crystallinum, a halophyte, to excess cadmium content in the medium was achieved by its predominant accumulation in roots, where excess cadmium is compartmentalized in the apoplast and seems to be subjected to detoxification through pectate formation. Moreover, the leaves and, particularly, the roots are characterized by a high activity of the antioxidant systems, such as guaiacol-dependent peroxidases, and an occurrence of proline at modest cadmium concentrations.

Journal

Russian Journal of Plant PhysiologySpringer Journals

Published: Oct 11, 2004

References

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