This paper provides a comprehensive comparison between the agency and wholesale model under the electronic book market duopoly. A model comprised of two retailers and a publisher was established to run the comparison in terms of price, profit, and welfare. We found that although better e-reader offerings may seem favorable in terms of e-book pricing, the actual effect on e-books is limited or even negligible. High wholesale price leads to higher retail prices of e-books and e-readers under the wholesale model than the agency model. Generally speaking, the total profits of e-books returned to the retailers under the wholesale model are lower than those returned under the agency model; conversely, the publisher obtains higher profits under the wholesale model than the agency model despite its power over e-book pricing. We also found that consumers are more likely to derive greater surplus under the wholesale model when the difference in available e-books is relatively narrow. If the wholesale price is low, however, the consumer surplus under the wholesale model is higher than that under the agency model across the board. Further, when the difference in e-books is very small, the total social welfare is minimized under the wholesale model compared to the agency model; low wholesale price but poor substitutability (or high wholesale price with relatively high substitutability) yield favorable social welfare under the wholesale model.
Electronic Commerce Research – Springer Journals
Published: Mar 31, 2017
It’s your single place to instantly
discover and read the research
that matters to you.
Enjoy affordable access to
over 18 million articles from more than
15,000 peer-reviewed journals.
All for just $49/month
Query the DeepDyve database, plus search all of PubMed and Google Scholar seamlessly
Save any article or search result from DeepDyve, PubMed, and Google Scholar... all in one place.
Get unlimited, online access to over 18 million full-text articles from more than 15,000 scientific journals.
Read from thousands of the leading scholarly journals from SpringerNature, Elsevier, Wiley-Blackwell, Oxford University Press and more.
All the latest content is available, no embargo periods.
“Hi guys, I cannot tell you how much I love this resource. Incredible. I really believe you've hit the nail on the head with this site in regards to solving the research-purchase issue.”Daniel C.
“Whoa! It’s like Spotify but for academic articles.”@Phil_Robichaud
“I must say, @deepdyve is a fabulous solution to the independent researcher's problem of #access to #information.”@deepthiw
“My last article couldn't be possible without the platform @deepdyve that makes journal papers cheaper.”@JoseServera