Nano-crystalline of TM-doped ZnO with general formula Zn0.97TM0.03O (TM: Mn, Fe, Co, and Ni) was prepared using sol–gel method. The dependence of crystal structure, morphology, and optical and magnetic properties on the type of transition metals was investigated. The XRD investigation of pure and TM-doped ZnO nanoparticles samples confirms the formation of single-phase hexagonal wurtzite structure. The estimated crystallite sizes are found in the range of 17 and 38 nm for the doped and pure samples, respectively. The obtained data suggest that the dopant type plays a vital role in the physical properties of the investigated samples. The optical band-gap energy Eg has been calculated from near infrared (NIR) and visible (VIS) reflectance spectra using the Kubelka–Munk function. Minimum value of 2.398 eV and maximum one of 3.29 eV were obtained for Manganese-doped ZnO and pure ZnO, respectively. The analysis of XRD and VSM of the samples confirms that the observed room-temperature (RT) ferromagnetism can be attributed to an intrinsic property of doped material sample and not due to formation of any secondary phase. The magnetic results show that Mn is the most effective dopant for producing ferromagnetism in nanoparticles of ZnO.
Applied Physics A: Materials Science Processing – Springer Journals
Published: Jun 2, 2018