Acacia nilotica was used for the adsorption of Reactive Black 5 (RB5) dye from an aqueous solution. Both the raw and activated (with H3PO4) carbon forms of Acacia nilotica (RAN and ANAC, respectively) were used for comparison. Various parameters (including dye concentration, contact time, temperature, and pH) were optimized to obtain the maximum adsorption capacity. RAN and ANAC were characterized using Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy, scanning electron microscopy, and energy-dispersive X-ray spectroscopy. The maximum experimental adsorption capacities for RAN and ANAC were 34.79 and 41.01 mg g−1, respectively, which agreed with the maximum adsorption capacities predicted by the Langmuir, Freundlich, and Dubinin–Radushkevich equilibrium isotherm models. The adsorption data of ANAC showed a good fit to the isotherm models based on the coefficient of determination (R 2): Langmuir type II (R 2 = 0.99) > Freundlich (R 2 = 0.9853) > Dubinin–Radushkevich (R 2 = 0.9659). This result suggested monolayer adsorption of RB5 dye. The adsorption of RB5 dye followed pseudo-second-order kinetics. The RAN adsorbent reflected an exothermic reaction (enthalpy change, ΔH = −0.006 kJ mol−1) and increased randomness (standard entropy change, ΔS = 0.038 kJ mol−1) at the solid–solution interface. In contrast, ANAC reflected both exothermic [−0.011 kJ mol−1 (303–313 K)] and endothermic [0.003 kJ mol−1 (313–323 K)] reactions. However, the ΔS value of ANAC was lower when the RB5 adsorption increased from 313 to 323 K. The negative values for the Gibbs free energy change at all temperatures indicated that the adsorption of RB5 dye onto RAN and ANAC was spontaneous in the forward direction.
Environmental Earth Sciences – Springer Journals
Published: Aug 23, 2017
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