1067-4136/05/3606- © 2005 Pleiades Publishing, Inc.
Russian Journal of Ecology, Vol. 36, No. 6, 2005, pp. 365–370. Translated from Ekologiya, No. 6, 2005, pp. 403–408.
Original Russian Text Copyright © 2005 by Gorchakovskii, Telegova.
Synanthropization of plant cover is actually an
adaptation of the ﬂora to environmental conditions that
have been altered or created as a result of human activ-
ities (Gorchakovskii, 1984, 1999). Its manifestations
are diverse and include, in particular, the invasion of
adventitious plants (anthropophytes) and the advance-
ment and activation of some indigenous plants
(apothytes). This is accompanied by a general impover-
ishment of regional and local ﬂoras, substitution of
their autochthonous components by allochthonous
components, and the structural simpliﬁcation and uniﬁ-
cation of plant communities. In measures aimed at
biodiversity conservation, an important task is to
reduce the adverse consequences of plant cover synan-
thropization. Therefore, it is necessary to analyze ten-
dencies in the process of synanthropization in different
regions and at various combinations of natural and
The plant cover of specially protected areas (nature
reserves, nature parks, etc.) is also subject to synan-
thropization and vulnerable to anthropophyte invasion.
This problem has attracted the attention of many
researchers. Thus, recent publications provide data on
the proportion of synanthropic species in the ﬂoras of
35 nature reserves of the former Soviet Union (Nukhi-
movskaya, 1984), as well as of the Kronotskii
(Ovcharenko and Rassokhina, 1989), Il’menskii (Gor-
chakovskii and Kozlova, 1998), Laplandskii (Berlina,
1999), Altaiskii (Zolotukhin
, 2003), and Kerzhen-
skii reserves (Urbanavichute, 2003); the Ojcow
National Park in Poland (Michalir, 1992); the National
Park of Lithuania (Sinkyavichene, 1981); etc. Of spe-
cial interest are the data concerning a very high synan-
thropization level in the ﬂora of the Voronezh Nature
Reserve (40%), which includes 146 anthropophytes
In this paper, we present the results of studies on
tendencies in plant cover synanthropization in specially
protected areas of different classes (a nature reserve and
a nature park) differing in the level of anthropogenic
impacts on the plant cover. Nature reserves are
restricted areas in which scientiﬁc research is mainly
performed, whereas the number of visitors and com-
mercial activity are strictly limited. Nature parks are
open for visitors, but the sites and routes for tourism
and recreation are controlled by the administration, and
excursions are escorted by guides. Thus, the anthropo-
genic impact on nature parks is stronger.
STUDY REGION AND OBJECTS
Studies were performed in the Visim Biosphere
Reserve and the Olen’i Ruch’i Nature Park. According
to physiographic zoning, they are in the southern taiga
subzone of the low-mountain part of the Middle Urals.
The Visim Biosphere Reserve is in the upper reaches
of the Sulem River, a tributary of the Chusovaya River.
Its initial area was 135 km
(in 1973), but it increased
to 335 km
after receiving the status of a biosphere
reserve (May 2001). Data on the ﬂora concern its
former area, which has been better studied in the ﬂoris-
The eastern part of the reserve is in the region of
mountain massifs with elevations of up to 699 m a.s.l.
(the town of Bol’shoi Sutuk), and the western part is in
residual mountains on the western slope, in the area
with undulating or ﬂat topography, with depressions
and elevations reaching 362 m a.s.l.
The plant cover of the reserve consists mainly of
), ﬁr (
), and ﬁr–
spruce forests along with derivative birch forests (
) and, less frequently,
aspen forests (
), often with an admix-
ture of spruce and ﬁr. In addition, there are mesophilic
meadows (in place of cut-out forests) and bogs.
Comparative Assessment of the Level of Plant Cover
Synanthropization in Specially Protected Areas
P. L. Gorchakovskii and O. V. Telegova
Institute of Plant and Animal Ecology, Ural Division, Russian Academy of Sciences,
ul. Vos’mogo Marta 8, 202, Yekaterinburg, 620144 Russia
Received May 12, 2005
—Tendencies in plant cover synanthropization depending on the pattern and intensity of anthropo-
genic impacts on natural complexes have been revealed in specially protected areas of different classes (a nature
reserve and a nature park).
: biodiversity, nature reserves, vegetation, anthropogenic transformation, synanthropization.