Specific factors that determine the cell fate in early embryogenesis are modulated during interaction of signaling pathways to form a unique regulatory network inside the cell, which is essential for differentiation of various cell populations. We carried out a comparative study of expression of the genes of TGFβ growth factors and their receptors at the initial stages of differentiation of the embryonic stem cells, during formation of spheroids of the embryonic teratocarcinoma cells, and during growth of neoplastic cells in vivo in immunodeficient mice. The patterns of expression of the genes Activin, Nodal, Lefty1, Lefty2, BMP, and TGFβ1 and their receptors ActRI, ActRII, BMPRI, TGFβ1R1, and Tdgf proved to be identical. Expression of α-fetoprotein and transcription factor Gata4 protein, specific for the primary endoderm, was detected in the embryonic teratocarcinoma cells. In Undifferentiated embryonic stem cells, expression of Gata4 was found at the mRNA level, while expression at the level of proteins appeared only in the primary endoderm cells in the embryoid bodies. The results obtained suggest that despite the existence of similar signaling systems in the embryonic stem and teratocarcinoma cells, the presence of different intracellular specific factors forms radically different regulatory pathways, which determine the program of their differentiation.
Russian Journal of Developmental Biology – Springer Journals
Published: Apr 12, 2007
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