ISSN 1022-7954, Russian Journal of Genetics, 2008, Vol. 44, No. 9, pp. 1087–1091. © Pleiades Publishing, Inc., 2008.
Original Russian Text © O.Yu. Shelukhina, E.D. Badaeva, T.A. Brezhneva, I.G. Loskutov, V.A. Pukhalsky, 2008, published in Genetika, 2008, Vol. 44, No. 9, pp. 1246–1251.
Of 12 diploid oat species described so far, only 4—
, M. B.,
Grun contain the C genome.
. Numerous studies have demonstrated that that the
C genome is considerably diverged genetically from
the A genomes. This is evidenced by abnormal meiotic
chromosome pairing in the hybrids between the species
with A and C genomes [2–5] and theiressential differ-
ences in karyotype structure [6, 7], chromosome C-
banding patterns , arrangement of rRNA gene loci
, sequences of ITS1 and ITS2 regions and 5.8S
rRNA genes , and chloroplast and mitochondrial
DNA [11, 12], as well as the result of RAPD and AFLP
analyses of nuclear DNA .
Two variants of the C genome have been described.
The ﬁrst, designated Cp, is found in
and the second, Cv, in
[8, 14, 15]. The hybrids between the species
carrying the Cp and Cv genome variants are sterile
, thereby demonstrating their divergence. This is
conﬁrmed by karyotype analysis [6, 8, 15, 17, 18] and
DNA assay with AFLP and RAPD markers [13, 19].
are similar in plant mor-
phology and their hybrids are fertile; this based on
many researchers consider these species as geographi-
subspecies [20, 21]. It is
assumed that their divergence can be connected with a
pericentric inversion in one chromosome . The
common speciﬁc features; however, the differences in
characteristics of several chromosomes show that they
are closely related yet distinctly diverged species .
Further comprehensive study of the intra- and inter-
species polymorphisms using various types of markers
is necessary to determine in more detail the phyloge-
netic relationships between the diploid species of the
In this work, we used biochemical (grain
storage proteins) and cytogenetic (C-banding and
in situ hybridization) methods for this purpose.
MATERIALS AND METHODS
Ten representatives of the diploid oat species carry-
ing the Cp genome—
Durieu k-210) and
(k-200), obtained from the
collection of the Institute of Plant Industry (St. Peters-
burg, Russia)—were studied using chromosome C-
banding and electrophoresis of grain storage proteins.
Both accessions were collected in Azerbaijan. One
accession, k-200, was studied by in situ
Two DNA probes—pTa794 (5S rDNA) and pTa71
(18S–5.8S–26S rRNA) were used for in situ hybridiza-
tion. The probes were labeled with biotin or digoxige-
nin by nick transcription according to manufacturer’s
recommendations (Roche, Germany). The in situ
hybridization followed the protocol described in 
with minor modiﬁcations.
The C-banding protocol described earlier  was
used for differential staining. The metaphase plates
were photographed at a magniﬁcation of
Comparative Analysis of Diploid Species of
Cytogenetic and Biochemical Markers:
O. Yu. Shelukhina
, E. D. Badaeva
, T. A. Brezhneva
, I. G. Loskutov
, and V. A. Pukhalsky
Vavilov Institute of General Genetics, Russian Academy of Sciences, Moscow, 119991 Russia;
Engelhardt Institute of Molecular Biology, Russian Academy of Sciences, Moscow, 119991 Russia
Vavilov All-Russia Research Institute of Plant Industry, St. Petersburg, 190000 Russia
Received September 12, 2007
—The diploid oat species containing the Cp genome—
using C-banding,ﬂuorescence in situ hybridization with probes pTa71 and pTa794, and electrophoresis of grain
storage proteins (avenins). Species with the C genome differed considerably from the species of the A genome
group in the karyotype structure, heterochromatin type and distribution, relative positions of the 45S and 5S
rRNA gene loci, and avenin patterns. These facts conﬁrmed that the C genome had diverged from the ancestral
genome before the radiation of the various A genome. Presumably, further evolution of the A- and C-genome
species occurred separately.