Combining Carbon and Polymeric Particles in an Inert Fluid
as a Promising Approach to Synthesis of Nanocomposites
I. I. Konstantinov, V. V. Karbushev, A. V. Semakov, and V. G. Kulichikhin
Topchiev Institute of Petrochemical Synthesis, Russian Academy of Sciences, Moscow, Russia
Received June 4, 2008
Abstract―Effective method for introduction of dispersed filler particles into a polymeric matrix was
developed. The method is based on disaggregation and uniform deposition of the filler onto the surface of
polymeric particles in an inert liquid medium under the action of ultrasound. Particles of detonation
nanodiamond were used as the filler.
ISSN 1070-4272, Russian Journal of Applied Chemistry, 2009, Vol. 82, No. 3, pp. 483–487. © Pleiades Publishing, Ltd., 2009.
Original Russian Text © I.I. Konstantinov, V.V. Karbushev, A.V. Semakov, V.G. Kulichikhin, 2009, published in Zhurnal Prikladnoi Khimii, 2009, Vol. 82,
No. 3, pp. 489–493.
Formation of polymeric composites containing
ultradispersed fillers is an intensively developing area
of modern material science. Here are meant not only
structural composites, for which mechanical properties
are the most important, but also functional materials
with redused gas-permeability and combustibility and
increased heat conductivity and atmosphere resistance.
On the whole, of interest are multifunctional
construction materials for which introduction of
nanofillers improves their basic mechanical
characteristics and imparts important service properties
As a rule, the role of modification objects is played
by large-tonnage polymers, which additionally
stimulates research and development in this area,
because introduction of a minor amount of nano-
particles can markedly extend the application areas of
the already existing polymers without organization of
new chemical industries. At present, the most
promising fillers are layered silicates [2–4] and
detonation nanodiamonds (DNDs) [5–9]. Alumino-
silicate particles are anisometric and have the shape of
disks in which elementary layers form galleries
characterized by a certain interplanar spacing. DND
particles are closer in shape to spheres, their structure
is monolithic, and hydroxy, carbonyl, and carboxy
functional groups are present on their surface [5–10].
Owing to the high surface energy and presence of
active groups, DND particles tend to form
agglomerates up to tens of micrometers in size .
The existence of such coarse particles in a composite
frequently hinders obtaining the desired modification
effect, although numerous publications disregard the
agglomeration effect and report that polymers are
filled with nanoparticles, rather than with the actually
introduced microparticles. One of the most important
problems in development of polymer/DND composites
is to devise a combining method in which nanosize
particles are introduced into a polymer and the content
of micrometer aggregates is insignificant.
The aim of this study was to develop a new
approach to combining polymers with nanodiamonds,
based on a specific interaction of two kinds of
particles, of DNDs and polymers, in inert liquid media
under conditions of an ultrasonic treatment.
We used in experiments DNDs of PUOO-SKh 96
brand, manufactured by Elektrokhimpribor combine
(Lesnoi, Russia) and having the form of a light gray
powder. The powder had the following parameters:
mass fraction of DNDs no less than 98%, density
3.3 g cm
, specific surface area 350 m
following polymeric matrices were chosen: hydrophilic
AND POLYMERIC MATERIALS