Combination of UVC-LEDs and ultrasound for peroxymonosulfate
activation to degrade synthetic dye: influence of promotional
and inhibitory agents and application for real wastewater
Received: 5 September 2017 /Accepted: 3 December 2017 /Published online: 13 December 2017
Springer-Verlag GmbH Germany, part of Springer Nature 2017
Several efforts have been carried out to present an efficient method for PMS activation. This work presented the use of UVC-
LEDs (light emitting diodes) and US (ultrasound) to activate PMS for decolorization of Direct Orange 26 (DO26). The perfor-
mance of UVC-LEDs/US/PMS process was effective in a broad range of pH (3.0–9.0). Complete decolorization was obtained in
only 12 min in pH = 7.0 and 1.5 mM PMS. Bicarbonate and nitrite ions showed inhibitory effect on decolorization while sulfate,
chloride, and nitrate had no significant effect on the performance of the process. Transition metals in homogenous (Fe
) and heterogeneous forms (Fe
) accelerated decolorization in UVC-LEDs/US/PMS system. The presence of
turbidity declined the performance of UVC-LEDs/US/PMS through the prevention of PMS activation by UV and US. Compared
to other oxidants (S
), PMS proved the higher function in decolorization of DO26 in UVC-
LEDs/US/oxidant system. Scavenging experiments showed that
contributed in the degradation of DO26.
Moreover, the UVC-LEDs/US/PMS system could markedly increase the biodegradability of real textile wastewater. These results
promised an effective process for degradation of organic pollutants from aquatic environment.
Keywords Sulfate radical
Most dyes may be toxic or carcinogen for human and animals.
They often consist of some aromatic rings which are persistent
to biodegradation (Moradi et al. 2016). Therefore, the pres-
ence of the dyes in water resources threatens aquatic life.
Moreover, the treatment of colored water by conventional
methods is difficult due to complex molecular structure of
the dyes (Carvalho and Carvalho 2017; Jorfi et al. 2017). In
recent 30 years, advanced oxidation processes (AOPs) have
exhibited excellent performance for degradation of organic
pollutants such as dyes. AOPs are defined based on the pro-
duction of reactive radicals (especially HO
) for destruction of
organic bond of pollutants. Various methods have been con-
ducted to produce hydroxyl radicals (Serpone et al. 2017;
Ahmadi et al. 2016). Conventionally, a chemical oxidant such
or ozone has been used for effective production of hy-
droxyl radicals in the presence of energy source or a catalyst.
In recent last decade, peroxymonosulfate (PMS, HSO
received great attention for the application in remediation of
polluted water or soil. PMS has an asymmetrical molecular
structure which can be easily decomposed to sulfate or hy-
droxyl radical (Oh et al. 2016; Ghanbari and Moradi 2017).
Nowadays, sulfate radical-based AOPs has been considered
by numerous researchers due to some properties of sulfate
) including high redox potential (2.5–3.1 V),
applying in the wide range pH and longer half-life compared
Responsible editor: Bingcai Pan
Electronic supplementary material The online version of this article
(https://doi.org/10.1007/s11356-017-0936-8) contains supplementary
material, which is available to authorized users.
* Farshid Ghanbari
Environmental Technologies Research Center, Ahvaz Jundishapur
University of Medical Sciences, Ahvaz, Iran
Department of Environmental Health Engineering, School of Public
Health, Ahvaz Jundishapur University of Medical Sciences,
Department of Environmental Health Engineering, Abadan School of
Medical Sciences, Abadan, Iran
Environmental Science and Pollution Research (2018) 25:6003–6014