KEW BULLETIN (2018) 73:25 ISSN: 0075-5974 (print) DOI 10.1007/S12225-018-9749-2 ISSN: 1874-933X (electronic) Cola dorrii sp. nov. (Sterculiaceae), a threatened Maputaland Forest endemic of South Africa 1 1 2 Martin Cheek , Poppy Lawrence & Warren McCleland Summary. Cola dorrii Cheek sp. nov. is described from Maputaland Sand and Northern Coastal Forest types in KwaZulu-Natal of South Africa. Formerly treated as Cola greenwayi Brenan, it differs in much shorter leaf-blades and petioles, and in the fruitlets which are stipitate, with apices that are rounded and forward-facing. The indumentum has stellate hairs which are soft, with sinuate arms, rather than subscabrid with stiff arms. The species is assessed as Vulnerable using the IUCN 2012 standard due to habitat modiﬁcation and loss due to humans, elephants and due to the invasive shrub Chromolaena odorata. Key Words. Conservation, dioecy, elephants, monograph, sand forest. Introduction seeds, is in a sister relationship with Cola, while Cola Schott. & Endl, was included in tribe Sterculieae Octolobus Welw., conﬁned to tropical Africa, with of Sterculiaceae sensu lato of the core Malvales for most numerous spirally inserted indehiscent mericarps, is of the twentieth century. Phylogenetic investigation of sister to Pterygota-Cola combined (Wilkie et al. 2006). Malvales showed that in place of the traditional four The remaining genera of the Cola clade, Hildegardia families recognised (Malvaceae, Bombacaceae, Schott & Endl., Firmiana Marsili, Pterocymbium R. Br. Sterculiaceae, Tiliaceae) there is a choice of either and Scaphium Schott & Endl. all have winged fruitlets recognising nine subfamilies in a super-Malvaceae and are wind-dispersed, and all but the ﬁrst are (Bayer et al. 1999; Bayer & Kubitzki 2003) or recognising conﬁned to SE Asia and adjoining areas. In compar- the same units as the families, Bombacaceae, ison, the pantropical genus Sterculia L., sometimes Brownlowiaceae, Byttneriaceae, Dombeyaceae, confused with Cola, is in an entirely different subclade, Durionaceae, Helicteraceae Malvaceae sensu stricto, and always has dehiscent fruit with the seeds with Sparrmanniaceae, Sterculiaceae, and Tiliaceae (Baum radicle directed away from the hilum and hard-coated, et al. 1998; Cheek & Dorr 2007;Cheek 2007a – j). Cola borne on a placenta with irritant hairs. can therefore now be placed either in Malvaceae- The genus Cola with 100 – 125 species of trees and Sterculoideae or Sterculiaceae s.s. The second approach shrubs, the most species-diverse genus in the is preferred since it is less cumbersome and creates less Sterculiaceae, is characterised by indehiscent (rarely taxonomic instability (Cheek & Dorr 2007). at length dehiscent) mericarps containing seeds with The Sterculiaceae sensu stricto are characterised asoft, ﬂeshy seedcoat, the radicle directed towards within Malvales by unisexual ﬂowers with a single the hilum. The endocarp is glabrous. Cola is mostly perianth whorl which lack an epicalyx. The male conﬁned to evergreen lowland and submontane ﬂowers have an androgynophore bearing the anthers forest in continental subsaharan Africa, with only in a terminal capitulum or ring, the gynoecium two species in deciduous forest or woodland. While vestigial and inconspicuous. Female ﬂowers usually some of the species are widespread, many are have a sessile or subsessile gynoecium developing into extremely local, and some are known from few or an apocarpous fruit of (1 –)4 – 5(– 15) fruitlets or single forest patches and so are vulnerable to extinc- mericarps, the base surrounded by indehiscent an- tion. Eight species of Cola in Cameroon alone have thers. The family is pantropical, with c. 415 species been assessed as threatened (Onana & Cheek 2011). arranged in 13 genera (Cheek 2007j) Cola nitida (Vent.) Schott. & Endl. and C. acuminata Pterygota Schott & Endl., a pantropical genus, with (P. Beauv.) Schott. & Endl. are planted throughout dehiscent, woody mericarps containing dry, winged the tropics for their seeds which act as stimulants Accepted for publication 9 May 2018. Science, Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew, Richmond, Surrey, TW9 3AE, UK. e-mail: firstname.lastname@example.org Ecorex, Wierda Park Ext 1, Centurion, Gauteng, South Africa. © The Author(s), 2018 25 Page 2 of 10 KEW BULLETIN (2018) 73:25 when chewed and are an ingredient of the epony- and unnamed species as stated in Cheek & Dorr mous and ubiquitous ‘Cola’ soft drinks. Two other (2007: 41), which is described below as Cola dorrii species also have stimulant seeds, but are only locally Cheek. cultivated (Cheek 2002a; Cheek & Dorr 2007). Most species of Cola occur in Tropical Africa, with only two species, C. natalensis Oliv. and C. greenwayi Materials and Methods Brenan in South Africa (Verdoorn 1981). In East Namesofspecies andauthors follow IPNI Africa (Uganda, Kenya and Tanzania), 21 species are (continuously updated). Herbarium material was ex- native (Cheek & Dorr 2007). However, West and amined with a Leica Wild M8 dissecting binocular Central Africa are the heartland of Cola. The largest microscope ﬁtted with an eyepiece graticule measur- number for any ﬂora region is that in the Flora of West ing in units of 0.025 mm at maximum magniﬁcation. Tropical Africa (FWTA), with 42 species, and with an The drawing was made with the same equipment with additional nine imperfectly-known species (Keay & a Leica 308700 camera lucida attachment. Specimens Brenan 1958). Thirty-three species are recorded from were inspected from the following herbaria: BM, Gabon (Hallé 1961) and 32 from Congo-Kinshasa BNRH, FHO, K, NU. The format of the description (Germain 1963). The Flore du Cameroun account awaits follows those in other papers describing new species in completion. The genus was last monographed by Cola, e.g. Cheek et al. (2002a, b). Schumann (1900) when 33 species were recognised. All specimens seen are indicated “!” Information Although Brenan did much research on the genus on duplicates cited at PRE but not seen derive from throughout its range, he conﬁned himself, largely, to the BRAHMS data http://newposa.sanbi.org/sanbi/ publishing accounts of new species (e.g. Brenan & Explore. These specimens are included since they Keay 1955). This paper renews an attempt to mono- occur within the range of Cola dorrii based on graph the genus afresh that began 16 years ago specimens seen, and because the only other species (Cheek 2002a, b). of Cola in Natal, C. natalensis, does not overlap in its Cola natalensis Oliv. (Oliver 1882) was one of the range with C. dorrii. Points were georeferenced using ﬁrst described species of the genus, and was until the locality information from herbarium specimens. The 1970s the only Cola known from South Africa. It occurs map was made using ArcMap version 10.5, with from the eastern Cape to southern Zululand (Palmer additional layers showing protected areas (UNEP- & Pitman 1972). Palmer & Pitman (1972) seem to be WCMC 2017) and lakes (ESRI 1992). the ﬁrst to mention a second species of South African The conservation assessment follows the IUCN Cola which they identiﬁed as C. microcarpa Brenan. The (2012) standard. Herbarium codes follow Index earliest herbarium record of this second species so far Herbariorum (Thiers continuously updated). known dates from 1934 (Forester 52, K, PRE). Palmer & Zulu names are standardised according to the Pitman (1972) state that this species is fairly common current method, which capitalises the ﬁrst letter. in the short sand forests of Zululand and in the high forest around Lake Sibayi. They give an extensive description and illustrations. In South Africa the Results species is easily distinguished from C. natalensis even Whilst in South Africa only two species of Cola have when sterile because the pulvini below the leaf-blades been recorded (Verdoorn 1981), in the Flora of are densely and persistently shortly hairy (not rapidly Tropical East Africa (FTEA) region of Uganda, Kenya glabrescent). Locally it is known as the “Hairy Cola” and Tanzania, 21 species are found (Cheek & Dorr (Moll 1981; Boon 2010). 2007). Underpinning that Flora account was Brenan’s Drummond in his checklist of Rhodesian woody (1956) account of Cola in Kenya, Uganda and Tanza- plants (1975) lists Cola microcarpa as a synonym of nia, in which both C. greenwayi and C. microcarpa were C. greenwayi Brenan without comment. This is described for the ﬁrst time, together with several other surprising since Wild (1961)inthe Flora Zambesiaca new species. The reassessment of East African Cola account does not mention C. microcarpa from that species for the FTEA account was based on many region and it may be that Drummond was referring more specimens than those available to Brenan to C. mossambicensis Wild, material of which was (1956). However C. greenwayi and C. microcarpa were once referred to as C. microcarpa, to which it is maintained as they had previously been deﬁned by similar. Coates Palgrave (1977: 598) in Trees of Brenan (Cheek & Dorr 2007), and both are separated Southern Africa andVerdoorninher paper ‘The from C. dorrii by numerous characters. The features genus Cola in southern Africa’ (1981) and later that separate these three species are set out in Table 1 authors, follow and support Drummond’s synony- below. my. However in this paper we intend to show that Vegetatively the “hairy cola” of Kwazulu-Natal is C. microcarpa sensu Palmer & Pitman (Cola greenwayi indeed strikingly similar to both Cola microcarpa and sensu Verdoorn pro parte) is a similar but distinct C. greenwayi. But since sterile specimens of Cola species © The Author(s), 2018 KEW BULLETIN (2018) 73:25 Page 3 of 10 25 are often impossible to identify to species even by the specialist (Cheek & Dorr 2007) this is not unusual. However the leaf-blades of the “hairy cola” have a smaller median length than those of C. greenwayi (Table 1), and the thickened blade margin is revolute, not ﬂat at the base of the blade. While the young leaves and stem apex of C. greenwayi have dense, rusty- red, stiff, subscabrid stellate hairs, those of the ‘hairy Cola’ are sparse, pale brown-pink or translucent and have longer sinuous arms, giving a shaggy appearance. The stipules are dissimilar (Table 1) but since they are caducous, they are or can be, difﬁcult to ﬁnd. In ﬂower the ‘hairy Cola’ produces but a single ﬂower per axil and each male stem has usually 5 – 6(– 10) ﬂowers of which 1 – 2 are at anthesis at any one moment, while in C. greenwayi the male ﬂowers are produced in fascicles and each stem can have many tens to more than 100 ﬂowers. The tepal indumentum of Cola greenwayi is also characterised by the stiff, rusty-red stellate hairs seen at the stem apex, separating it from the pale brown- pink, soft, sinuate hairs of C. dorrii. While the anther heads of Cola greenwayi have 4 – 6 anthers, those of C. dorrii have 8. The fruitlets of the two species differ very greatly. Those of C. dorrii have a neck or stipe at the base (Fig. 1C; Palmer & Pitman 1972,as C. microcarpa) and the apex, the stylar area, is rounded, with the styles apical since the fruitlets are erect. In C. greenwayi, as depicted in Wild (1961: tab. 105 – 5) there is no basal neck (or stipe) and the stylar area is both beaked (rostrate) and lateral. Cola dorrii Cheek sp. nov. Type: South Africa, “Natal, Ingwavuma distr., near Sihangwane Store, in Newtonia- Cleistanthus forest on pallid sands”, fr., 25 Jan. 1964, Tinley 883 (holotype K!; isotype NU). http://www.ipni.org/urn:lsid:ipni.org:names:60476373-2 Cola microcarpa non Brenan, sensu Palmer & Pitman (1972) Cola greenwayi var. greenwayi non Brenan, sensu Verdoorn (1981); Moll (1981); Boon (2010), van Wyk & van Wyk (2013). Dioecious, evergreen, small tree 3.5 – 8(– 18) m tall, up to 20 cm diam. at 1.5 m from ground; bark light-brown, ﬂaking (Palmer & Pitman 1972); Terminalia-branching; bud-scales c. 10 – 12, lanceolate, 3 – 3.5 × 1 mm, grey, densely and minutely puberulent. Indumentum di- morphic, stellate, c. 90% of hairs white, persistent, 0.025 – 0.03 mm diam., 7 – 8-armed, arms appressed; c. 10% of hairs pale brown, caducous, 0.75 – 1.25 mm diam., 6 – 9-armed arms erect, sinuate, indumentum covering current season’s growth (larger, pale brown hairs falling ﬁrst) previous season’s stems glabrous, © The Author(s), 2018 Table 1. Characters distinguishing Cola microcarpa, Cola greenwayi var. greenwayi (data from Cheek & Dorr 2007) and Cola dorrii. Cola microcarpa Cola greenwayi var. greenwayi Cola dorrii Ecology & geography riverine forest; 100 –700 m alt. SE submontane forest; 1100 – 1850 m alt. low altitude sand forest and coastal forest; Tanzania (FTEA regions T6 – 8) Tanzania, Mozambique, Malawi 10 – 70 m alt. Kwazulu Natal Indumentum of distalmost internode softly hairy, pale brown subscabrid, hairs rusty-red softly hairy, pale brown Leaf-blade length (on a single ﬂowering stem, cm) 2 – 15 (– 17.5) 3 – 16 (– 18) (1.2 –) 3.5 – 8.5 (– 10.4) Petiole length range (on a single ﬂowering stem, cm) 0.1 – 6.7 0.3 – 4(– 5.6) 0.2 – 2(– 3.7) Stipule ligulate, c. 6 mm long, puberulous narrowly triangular 3 – 6 mm long, ﬁliform 3 – 4 × 0.6 mm, glabrous with brown scurfy hairs Male inﬂorescences fascicles fascicles single ﬂowers per axil Number perianth lobes (male ﬂowers) 5 (– 7) 5 (– 6) (5 –)6 Anther No. (male ﬂowers) 5 –64 –68 Stigmas of female ﬂowers (3 –)4 (3 –)4(– 5) 5 Style position in mature fruitlet obscure lateral apical Fruitlet base rounded to obtuse obtuse to acute shortly stipitate Fruitlet apex rounded apiculus ± 1 mm long rounded 25 Page 4 of 10 KEW BULLETIN (2018) 73:25 Fig. 1. Cola dorrii. A habit, stem with female ﬂowers; B hairs from young leaf surface from A; C habit, stem with fruits; D hairs from surface of fruit; E male ﬂower; F hairs from pedicels of male and female ﬂowers; G dimorphic hairs from exterior sepal surface; H anther-head, plan view, note vestigial gynoecium; Jstellate hair from androgynophore base; K female ﬂower, one tepal removed; L external sepal surface female ﬂowers: dimorphic hairs; M stigmas, side view; N stigmatic lobe, transverse section. A & B, E, J – M from Moll 4388; C from Tinley 883; D, F – H from Pooley 867. DRAWN BY ANDREW BROWN. © The Author(s), 2018 KEW BULLETIN (2018) 73:25 Page 5 of 10 25 epidermis white, often with deep longitudinal ridges. indumentum as male. Tepals 6, patent to ascending, Leafy stems terete 1.5 – 2(– 3) mm diam., with (2 –)6 lanceolate, 7.5 – 8 × 2.5 – 3 mm, apex acute to (– 8) alternate, spirally arranged leaves (at anthesis) subacuminate, base 1.8 – 2.2 mm wide, inner surface inserted over the distal 1 – 2 cm of stem in a rosette, glabrous, outer surface 60% covered in a mixture of the distalmost leaves subsessile, with the smallest dimorphic stellate hairs (Fig. 1K): 1) 5 – 7-armed hairs blades, the most proximal leaves with the longest 0.15 – 0.2 mm diam. 2) 6 – 9-armed hairs 0.4 – 0.7 mm blades and longest petioles. Leaf-blades glossy, dark diam. Stamens 5, alternating with carpels, each 1 mm green, oblanceolate (the smallest elliptic) (1.2 –) 3.5 – long, indehiscent. Gynoecium: ovary 4 – 5-lobed, 1.75 × 8.5 (– 10.4) × (0.7 –) 1.2 – 3.6 (– 4.3) cm, apex shortly 3.2 mm, densely patent hairy, style c. 1 × 1 mm, densely acuminate, acumen as broad as long, c. 0.5 cm long, patent hairy, hairs extending to the dorsal surfaces of the base cuneate, abruptly rounded or obtuse, secondary style-arms, hairs 0.2 mm long, patent. Style arms (4 –)5, nerves (4 –)5 – 9(– 11) on each side of the midrib, spreading, 3.5 – 4 mm diam., each blade-like laterally arising at c. 60° from the midrib, arching gradually up ﬂattened 1.5 × 0.6 – 0.7 × 0.2 – 0.3 mm, the apex recurved, towards the margin and apex, connecting with the the ventral edge lacerate. Fruit pedicels accrescent 1.5 – secondary nerve above, forming a looping infra- 2.2 cm long, articulation 0.4 – 0.6 cm below the apex; marginal nerve 1.5 – 2 mm from the margin, domatia perianth persistent; carpels (1 –)4(– 5), each globose 1 – absent; tertiary and quaternary nerves inconspicuous; 1.5cmdiam.,apexrounded,basestipitate,stipe slender2 glabrescent, young leaves with dense, overlapping 7 – – 3 mm long; orange, with a slight ventral groove, stigmas 9-armed stellate hairs 0.5 – 0.7 mm diam., the arms persistent, indumentum of scattered 5 – 9-armed stellate slender, sinuous. Stipules highly caducous, sub ﬁli- hairs, each 0.4 – 0.7 mm across. Fig. 1 form, 3 – 4 × 0.6 mm, twisted, subglabrous. Petioles, terete, 2 – 20 mm long, 0.5 – 1 mm wide pulvinus 3 – RECOGNITION. Differing from Cola greenwayi in that leaf- 6 mm long, 1 mm wide, at apex of petiole, persistently blades (1.2 –) 3.5 – 8.5 (– 10.4) cm long on a single densely pale brown hairy; indumentum as stem. stem, petioles 0.2 – 2(– 3.7) cm long, (not 3 – 16 ( – Inﬂorescence buds globose, 1.75 – 2 mm diam., 1 (– 18) cm long and 0.3 – 4(– 5.6) cm long respectively), 2) per axil at (usually) leafy nodes, ﬂower single, ﬂowers single per node (not in fascicles); fruitlet apex enclosed in c. 6 variously-shaped bracts; proximal rounded, positioned apically, base stipitate (not ros- bract pair semi-circular, about 5× broader than long, trate, lateral and obtuse to acute). c. 0.2 × 1 mm; middle bract pair concave, bifurcate, 2 – DISTRIBUTION. South Africa: KwaZulu Natal (Map 1). 3× broader than long, c. 0.5 × 1.5 mm, persistent post- SPECIMENS EXAMINED. SOUTH AFRICA. KwaZulu-Natal, anthesis and becoming ﬂat, exposing the glabrous uMkhanyakude Distr. (specimens grouped according glossy mid brown adaxial surface; distal bract pair to the 1:50 000 quarter-degree mapping grid used in caducous, naviculate, about 3× longer than broad, South Africa). 2632CC. Tembe Elephant Park, West- constricted midlength, c. 1.75 – 3 × 0.8 – 1.5 mm, ern Boundary in corridor area, 28 Oct. 1993, P. van outer surface of bracts densely and minutely dull Wyk BSA1312 (PRE); ibid., Tembi, male ﬂ., 17 brown puberulent. Inﬂorescences 1-ﬂowered, bracts Jan. 1999, Schmidt 2111 (BRNH! image); Ulukondo caducous or nil, in axils of the previous season’s leaves Ndumu Game Reserve, Ingwavuma Distr., male ﬂ., 26 (borne immediately below the leaves, 1 – 4 per leafy Oct. 1970, Pooley 867 (K!, NU); Ndumu Game Reserve, stem; pedicels 1 – 1.5 mm long. Flowers pale green, st., 21 Nov. 1967, Strey & Moll 3757 (K! PRE); Ndumu divided into lobes for 6 their radius. Male ﬂowers 12 – Game Reserve, Khondo Sand Forest, March 1968, de Moor 34 (PRE); ibid., 17 Oct. 1968, Garland S301, 302, 14 mm across, pedicels 10 – 15 × 0.1 mm, terete, c. 50% covered by 4 – 8-armed stellate hairs, arms 0.2 – 303, 304, 305, 306 (all PRE); ibid., Oct. 1968, Garland 47574 (PRE); ibid., 19 Jan. 1968, Garland 47576 (PRE). 0.5 mm long, articulated 7 – 8 mm below the ﬂower. Tepals 6 patent (to slightly campanulate); oblanceolate 2632DC. Manguzi, Mabibi-Bos, wes van Manguzi, 3 to lanceolate 5.5 × 2.2 mm; apex acute, abruptly Oct. 1984, D. J. Botha 3485 (PRE). 2732AB. 10 miles rounded, base 1 – 1.5 mm wide, inner surface glabrous Pongola Bridge/Maputa, Ubombo, female ﬂ., 8 in proximal two-thirds, distal third with 30 – 50% cover Nov. 1969, Moll (4388 (K!; NH; PRE); Ingwavuma Distr., of 3 – 5-armed stellate hairs 0.2 – 0.35 mm diam.; 1mile E of Makane’sDrift, female ﬂ., 22 Nov 1967, Moll outer surface moderately densely stellate-hairy, hairs &Strey 3773 (K!, PRE); ibid., 1 mile E of Pongola Pont, 23 Nov. 1967, Strey & Moll 3774 (PRE); ibid., E of overlapping, dimorphic, smaller hairs 5 – 10-armed, 0.1 – 0.15 mm diam., larger hairs 6 – 8-armed, 0.25 – Pongola R., Jan. 1968, Garland 47580 (PRE); ibid., 2 km E 0.35 mm diam. Androphore 2 × 0.5 mm, base densely of Makane’s Drift, 30 May 1972, Stephen 733 (PRE); stellate hairy, hairs c. 8-armed, 0.6 mm diam., other- Makane’s Pont; Pongola R., 10 Nov. 1983, Poynton wise glabrous. Staminal head c. 2 mm diam., 1 mm PRF17953 (PRE); Mengu, Pongola R., Makane’sPont long, stamens c. 8; gynoecium vestigial, concealed near Jobe’s Kraal, 13 Oct. 1969, Garland 434 (PRE); E of within apex, styles 4. Female ﬂowers 13 – 14 mm diam. Pongola R., Jan. 1968, Garland 47565 (PRE); E side of with pedicels 10 – 12 mm long at anthesis, Pongola R., Ndumo sandveld, road Ndumo-Jozini, 30 © The Author(s), 2018 25 Page 6 of 10 KEW BULLETIN (2018) 73:25 CONSERVATION STATUS. Cola dorrii has not been previously assessed for its conservation status, since it was formerly included within a broadly delimited C. greenwayii var. greenwayii. The latter taxon was treated as Least Concern by Foden & Potter (2005)accessed at http://redlist.sanbi.org/genus.php?genus=1854.and by Raimondo et al. (2009). This was because of the very large extent of occurrence of that taxon as previously delimited by authors such as Verdoorn (1981). As delimited in this paper, and using the georeferenced specimens cited above, Cola dorrii has 2 2 an EOO of 4787 km and an AOO of 72 km . This was calculated using Geocat (Bachman et al. 2011) set to the IUCN preferred cell size of 4 km Cola dorrii currently appears to survive at nine locations, most of which are designated as protected but at which it is threatened. These, with threats are as follows, listed from north to south: 1. Tembe Elephant Park (TEP) where sand forests are threatened by trampling and browsing by unsustainably high elephant populations (Stone & Map 1. Global distribution of Cola dorrii. Grey diamonds Ntetha 2013; Potgieter 2013). indicate specimens that have been seen, black diamonds 2. Ndumo Game Reserve. The sand forest habitat in specimens that have not been veriﬁed (unseen). Green areas Ndumo is threatened by land invasions from are formally protected. DESIGNED BY POPPY LAWRENCE. surrounding communities seeking arable land for cultivation. Oct. 1993, P. van Wyk 1342 (PRE); Makanes Pont; 3. The site on the road between Mbazwana and Kosi Mengwu Sand Forest, 13 Nov. 1968, H. J. T. Venter 5153 Bay (Schuhardt DSO1021), inside or on the bound- (PRE); nr Sihangwane Store, fr., 25 Jan. 1964, Tinley 883 ary of Kosi Bay protected area. Here the sand forest (K!, NU); Sihangwana, 24 Feb. 1982, Retief 803 (PRE). has been heavily impacted by subsistence agricul- 2732BA. 50 km from Mbazwana to Kosi Bay, 28 Jan. 1967, ture. So we could consider this a site that potentially Schuhardt DSO1021 (PRE). 2732BC. Ubombo Distr. still has the species but is signiﬁcantly threatened by further habitat loss. 2732BC (Ubombo) Mondozi Lake Forest, Lake Sibayi, male ﬂ., 13 Feb. 1976, Brenan 14225(K!); ibid., Lake 4. Sileza Nature Reserve. This appears to be well protected. Sibayi, st., 29 March 1965, Vahrmeijer 720 (K!, PRE); ibid., 14 Sept. 1965, Vahrmeijer 1080 (PRE); E Shores of Lake 5. Lake Sibayi (also known as Sibhayi and Sibaya). All Sibayi on old rd, 12 Sept. 1971, Stephens 381 (PRE); Lake sites appear to be within the protected area between Sibayi, Ubombo, ﬂ. buds, Oct. 1968, Garland s.n. (K!, lake and coast and to be well-protected. NH); Lake Sibayi, 16 Sept. 1971, Stephens 411 (PRE); at 6. False Bay Park section of iSimangaliso Wetland Mandozi, on E Shore Lake Sibayi Mbazwana, 24 Park. The forest habitat for the species at this Oct. 1966, De Winter 8524 (PRE); Lake Sibayi, Drum location appears well-protected. Island Forest, 26 Oct. 1994, Lubbe 383 (PRE). 2732CD. 7 – 9. Dukuduku Forest, Mtubatuba, and Hluhluwe. Hlabisa Distr., False Bay, 16 Jan. 1968, Garland 26 (PRE); Such forests are threatened by habitat alteration False Bay Park, Mpophomeni Trail, 27 Jan. 1981, through the invasion of the alien shrub Ankiewicz 10 (PRE); False Bay Park, 28 Jan. 1967, Strey Chromolaena odorata (L.) R. H. King & H. Rob. 7342 (PRE); ibid., Nov. 1967, Garland 47563 (PRE); ibid., and habitat loss through informal settlement 12 Jan. 1968, Garland 47575 (PRE); ibid., False Bay, Bird (Ntombela 2003). Sanctuary Bushveld Reserve, Near Mr Redman’s Camp, 27 June 1944, Gerstener 4757 (PRE); ibid., 17 Feb. 1986, At four locations Cola dorrii appears likely to have Venter 11509 (PRE); ibid., 9 July 1961, Ward 3664 (PRE); been lost altogether due to habitat loss (W. McCleland ibid., Ward 3676 (PRE). 2832AB.Charter’sCreek Eof pers. comm. 2017; observations on Google Earth). Ndhlozi pan,11Oct.1958, Rochet 14 (PRE); ibid., Rochet These are at Charter’s Creek, and at three locations 15 (PRE). 2832AD. Dukuduku forest, fr., 23 Nov. 1964, along the Pongola River at Makane’s Drift. Most of the Strey 5593 (K!, PRE); ibid., Dukuduku Forest, st., 1934, habitat in the vicinity of the drift has been trans- F.D. Herb 8676, Forester 52 (K!, PRE). formed through subsistence agriculture (up to at least HABITAT. Sand Forest and Northern Coastal Forest; 5 – 3 km east of the drift, which is the area that Moll & 150 m asl. Strey 3773, Moll & Strey 3774, Stephen 733, Poynton © The Author(s), 2018 KEW BULLETIN (2018) 73:25 Page 7 of 10 25 PRF17953 and Garland 434 were collected in: W. LOCAL NAMES. Hairy Cola (English); Harige Kola McCleland pers. comm. 2017). (Afrikaans) (Boon 2010); Baster knoppel-hout As a consequence, gaps have widened in the (Afrikaans) (Moll 1981); Umqhosho, Umthenenende, distribution. So, between the southernmost locations Intandothi (isiZulu) (Boon 2010); Mqobo (Forester 52, (Mtubatuba and Dukuduku forest), and the next K) Zulu; Umbidzane (siSwati) (Lofﬂer & Lofﬂer 2005) extant locations to the North, at Hluhlwe and False LOCAL USES. “fruit sometimes chewed by the Zulus, but Bay, a gap has opened up due to apparent loss of never swallowed. They are eaten by Livingstone’s habitat at Charter’s Creek. antelope (Suni), Red Duiker, and rodents. Zulus use A further gap of 80 km occurs between False Bay the tree medicinally. They value it most for its wood and Lake Sibayi, locations. However, we consider this which — together with that of Cola natalensis — makes is insufﬁcient to rate as severely fragmented due to the best of all sticks (hence the name Umqhosho, habitat loss. Equally, although four of the former 13 meaning “the Vanquisher”). It is also used for upright locations have been lost, equating to a 30% loss over house poles.” (Palmer & Pitman 1972: 1491; Boon the last 50 years since the specimens evidencing these 2010: 354). locations were collected, we consider this too unreli- able to invoke Criterion A. Instead we here assess Cola dorrii as Vulnerable VU The ecology & distribution of Cola dorrii B1+B2 ab(i-v) since we count nine locations where Cola dorrii is endemic to the Maputaland coastal plain Cola dorrii it is still extant, most of which are in formal in northern KwaZulu-Natal, South Africa (Map 1). It protected areas, yet at six of which it is threatened as has not yet been discovered over the border in documented above. southern Mozambique despite being found at the At Lake Sibayi, some sites were not traced with border fence in South Africa, so its presence in certainty and were considered as possibly being Mozambique is to be expected so long as suitable outside of the protected area, these being Drum habitat remains intact there. Cola dorrii occurs in two Island and Mondozi (or Mandozi) Forest. Neither of distinctly different forest types, namely Sand Forest these appear on old topographical maps. However, and Northern Coastal Forest (Mucina & Rutherford Mandozi is indicated as being on the eastern lake 2006). Sand Forest is described by Pooley (1993: 16) as shore, so would therefore be in the protected part of being restricted to deep sands on inland fossil dunes the forest. A lookout point near the south-eastern part that deﬁne a former coastline. This forest type occurs of the lake is called “Dumile” which means “to in a fragmented belt from 12 to 55 km inland and thunder or drum”, so we assume that Drum Island extends over 200 km in length from the False Bay Park may refer to this, which would also place it in the section of the iSimangaliso Wetland Park in the south eastern part of the lake and in protected forest. to the Licuati Forest in southern Mozambique in the It is possible that this species may yet be found at north. It is present in a number of formal conservation additional locations. There is a near-continuous strip areas, most notably Tembe Elephant Park (TEP). of coastal forest from Lake Sibayi to Bhanga Nek Matthews et al. (2001) described eight vegetation (about 22 km long) and much coastal forest between communities in TEP, one of which refers to Sand Cape Vidal and Sodwana Bay (about 45 km of Forest, namely the Drypetes arguta – Uvaria lucida coastline) that has not been intensively ﬂoristically community. Two subcommunities were recognised, studied but which resembles the Lake Sibayi forest. the ﬁrstofwhich is “Cola greenwayi – Balanites The gap along the coast between Dukuduku and Lake maughamii tall Sand Forest”, in which the “diagnostic Sibayi may be more a function of undersampling than consistent species are the tall tree Balanites maughamii true fragmentation. and the understory shrub Cola greenwayii.” This ETYMOLOGY. named forDrLaurence(‘Larry’)Dorr subcommunity is associated with dune slopes and (1953 –)who with the ﬁrst author wrote the depressions on orange brown arenosols and dystric Sterculiaceae account for Flora of Tropical East Africa regosols (largely sands with very little clay) at pH in which this species was ﬁrst mooted as distinct 5.6. Cola greenwayi (i.e. C. dorrii)isrecorded as (Cheek & Dorr 2007). A leading specialist in Malvales being almost entirely restricted to this subcommu- globally and with ﬂoristic expertise in Madagascar, nity within the eight Maputaland communities at Africa and the New World, Dr Dorr is Chair of the TEP (Matthews et al. 2001). Botany Department, Smithsonian Insitution (US), Northern Coastal Forest, as described by Mucina & USA, having previously initiated Missouri Botanical Rutherford (2006), formerly referred to under other Garden’s (MO) research and exploration pro- names, such as “Coastal Tropical Forest” or “coastal gramme in Madagascar (1983 – 1986) before dune forest” (Breen 1971), occurs along the South conducting ﬂoristic survey work in the Andes of S African coastline from the Eastern Cape to the border America for New York Botanical Garden (NY) in the with Mozambique and extralimitally along the entire Bronx (1988 – 1991). Mozambique seaboard to southern Tanzania. It differs © The Author(s), 2018 25 Page 8 of 10 KEW BULLETIN (2018) 73:25 signiﬁcantly from Sand Forest in being conﬁned to STEM ARCHITECTURE. The ﬁrst leaves of the season’s deep sands on relatively recent (younger than 10,000 stem growth in March are the largest, with the years) coastal dunes, and in having a different suite of longest petioles, to 20 (– 37) mm long. A season’s dominant tree and shrub species, such as Mimusops growth can be 4 cm to 8.5 cm long, with (3 –)5 to caffra, Diospyros natalensis, Sideroxylon inerme and Psydrax 12 leaves. The last leaves of the ﬂush are progres- obovata. A number of Cola dorrii specimens have been sively smaller, with shorter petioles only 2 – 3mm collected historically from Northern Coastal Forest, long, so that the leafy stem resembles a tiled dome, speciﬁcally in the vicinity of Lake Sibayi, Manguzi and lacking light gaps. Dukuduku Forest. Breen (1971) gave an account of Stems in the ﬁrst season are covered in stellate the Northern Coastal (“Dune Forest”) at Sibayi. Cola hairs, conspicuously so in the ﬁrst and second dorrii (as C. natalensis) is one of 86 tree species internodes when large but caducous pale brown recorded, and is one of the species occurring at sinuous-armed stellate hairs are present. These soon median frequency, at a relative density of 0.6. It is fall, but more numerous, denser and less conspicuous not one of the major components of the canopy. Of translucent-white, appressed armed minute stellate the ﬁve stems recorded in Breen’s enumeration of this hairs persist. In the second season the stems are species, two were 7.5 cm girth class, one in the 10 cm, largely free of hairs, with white epidermis, with shallow and two in the 15 cm girth classes, these individuals all longitudinal grooves. occurring in the 3 – 6 m height class apart from one in DIOECY. The sexuality of Cola species has been given as the 2.1 – 3 m height class. Most canopy individuals of “Dioecious or monoecious, occasionally with bisexual this forest type occur in the the 3 – 6 m height class, ﬂowers” (Verdoorn 1981). However, in the case of with the highest canopy trees being in a class above 9 Cola dorrii, all the evidence currently available mhigh. Breen(1971) estimates that the annual indicates that the species is dioecious. Of the ten rainfall of Sibayi is in the order of 1000 mm, falling specimens cited in this paper, those in ﬂower had mostly between September and May. either all male ﬂowers, or all female ﬂowers. One Maputaland (formerly Tongaland), extending from specimen (Moll 4388, K) has notes stating clearly: Kwazulu Natal into southern Mozambique, is considered “female ﬂowers only found on the tree” and a regional centre of endemism with at least 230 species another Moll & Strey 3773 “dioecious”. and infraspeciﬁc taxa of plant documented as being While female ﬂowers were observed always to have endemic or near endemic (van Wyk 1996). Of these, at full-sized anthers, these were never seen to be least 27 are restricted to Sand Forest (known as Licuati dehisced, so that functionally the stamens in female Forest in Mozambique) (Matthews et al. 2001). ﬂowers appear to be sterile. A similar case of a species recently discovered to be Schmidt 3434 (BRNH image!), a fruiting specimen endemic to the Sand Forest of Maputaland is that of that ﬁts Cola dorrii, is atypical in its geography since Warneckea parvifolia R. D. Stone & Ntetha which had it occurs further inland than all other veriﬁed previously also been considered conspeciﬁc with a specimens of C. dorrii and not in the coastal forest species to the north in tropical Africa, and which like or sand forest to which C. dorrii seems otherwise Cola dorrii has smaller leaves in comparison with those restricted. If this specimen is not the product of a relatives (Stone & Ntetha 2013). labelling error, it means that the range of the In several parts of tropical Africa and Madagascar, species may be larger than current data suggests, areas of sand, usually coastal, and derived from and may extend to the Lubombo Mts of Swaziland ancient-dunes have unique assemblages of species to which it is known that some sand forest species including narrowly endemic species and even genera. extend, and whence records of “Cola greenwayii” Examples occur in coastal Cabinda to Gabon (Cheek have been made but not been seen by us (W. et al. 2014; Gosline et al. 2014); in coastal northern McCleland pers. comm. Nov. 2017). Further inves- Mozambique (Timberlake et al. 2011 and Johnson tigation is planned to address this question. et al. 2017) and in North West Madagascar (Stirton & DuPuy 1992). PHENOLOGY. Flowering occurs in Oct. – Nov., after the The Barberton Cola rains begin in September, in the southern spring, with Verdoorn (1981) refers to the surprising discovery of out-of-season ﬂowers aslateasFebruary(Brenan Cola in the Barberton Distict of Transvaal, now 14225). Fruits follow in Nov. – Feb. In March – April Mpumulanga. She included these specimens in her new shoots and leaves are produced in a ﬂush, after broad concept of C. greenwayi var. greenwayi. The which during the dry season, growth appears to cease specimens seen from this upland area differ greatly until October, during which time axillary inﬂores- in multiple leaf characters from those of C. dorrii. In cence buds develop, while the dormant stem apex is this respect they indeed ﬁt best with C. greenwayi var. covered by bud-scales. Leaves persist on the stems for greenwayi as deﬁned in Table 1. Thus South Africa now at least 3 seasons. certainly has three species of Cola, not two. © The Author(s), 2018 KEW BULLETIN (2018) 73:25 Page 9 of 10 25 Cheek, M. (2002a). Three new species of Cola Acknowledgements The boost to reawaken the monographic study of Cola (Sterculiaceae) from western Cameroon. Kew Bull. 57: 402 – 415. https://doi.org/10.2307/4111117 was provided by sponsorship via IUCN from the ____ (2002b). A new species of Cola (Sterculiaceae)from Toyota Motor Corporation to the RBG, Kew conserva- tion assessment unit to increase assessment output of the Usambara Mts, Tanzania. Kew Bull. 57: 417 – 422. ____ (2007a). Bombacaceae. In: V. H. Heywood, R. K. plant species. This resulted in support by Eimear Nic Lughadha and Serene Hargreaves for an internship Brummitt,A.Culham, A. &O.Seberg(eds), Flowering plant families of the world, pp. 65. 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