Read Writ (2011) 24:387–394 DOI 10.1007/s11145-010-9232-4 • • Ludo Verhoeven Pieter Reitsma Linda S. Siegel Published online: 13 May 2010 The Author(s) 2010. This article is published with open access at Springerlink.com Models of the reading process generally describe the relations among the compo- nents of reading in skilled readers. In these models, the relations between bottom-up word recognition processes (lower order processes) and top-down comprehension processes (higher order processes) are typically described. In bottom-up models of reading, processing starts with the raw input and passes through increasingly reﬁned analyses until the meaning of the text is grasped. In top-down models, the decisions made at higher levels of processing are used to guide choices at lower levels. Research evidence makes it clear that neither purely bottom-up nor purely top-down models can fully explain the reading process (Rayner & Pollatsek, 1989; Stanovich, 2000). An interactive model of ongoing top-down and bottom-up processes is therefore needed to imply that the reader uses both graphic and contextual information to grasp the meaning of a text (Perfetti, Landi, & Oakhill, 2005; Verhoeven & Perfetti, 2008). In the process of learning to read, children start out acquiring elementary decoding skills and learn to apply
Reading and Writing – Springer Journals
Published: May 13, 2010
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